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Principles and Applications of Tribology, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-94454-6
1006 pages
April 2013
Principles and Applications of Tribology, 2nd Edition (1119944546) cover image

This fully updated Second Edition provides the reader with the solid understanding of tribology which is essential to engineers involved in the design of, and ensuring the reliability of, machine parts and systems. It moves from basic theory to practice, examining tribology from the integrated viewpoint of mechanical engineering, mechanics, and materials science. It offers detailed coverage of the mechanisms of material wear, friction, and all of the major lubrication techniques - liquids, solids, and gases - and examines a wide range of both traditional and state-of-the-art applications.

For this edition, the author has included updates on friction, wear and lubrication, as well as completely revised material including the latest breakthroughs in tribology at the nano- and micro- level and a revised introduction to nanotechnology. Also included is a new chapter on the emerging field of green tribology and biomimetics.

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About the Author xv

Foreword xvii

Series Preface xix

Preface to Second Edition xxi

Preface to First Edition xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definition and History of Tribology 1

1.2 Industrial Significance of Tribology 3

1.3 Origins and Significance of Micro/Nanotribology 4

1.4 Organization of the Book 6

References 7

2 Structure and Properties of Solids 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Atomic Structure, Bonding and Coordination 9

2.2.1 Individual Atoms and Ions 9

2.2.2 Molecules, Bonding and Atomic Coordination 13

2.3 Crystalline Structures 33

2.3.1 Planar Structures 33

2.3.2 Nonplanar Structures 39

2.4 Disorder in Solid Structures 41

2.4.1 Point Defects 41

2.4.2 Line Defects (Dislocations) 41

2.4.3 Surfaces/Internal Boundaries 44

2.4.4 Solid Solutions 45

2.5 Atomic Vibrations and Diffusions 45

2.6 Phase Diagrams 46

2.7 Microstructures 48

2.8 Elastic and Plastic Deformation, Fracture and Fatigue 49

2.8.1 Elastic Deformation 51

2.8.2 Plastic Deformation 53

2.8.3 Plastic Deformation Mechanisms 56

2.8.4 Fracture 62

2.8.5 Fatigue 68

2.9 Time-Dependent Viscoelastic/Viscoplastic Deformation 74

2.9.1 Description of Time-Dependent Deformation Experiments 77

Problems 80

References 81

Further Reading 82

3 Solid Surface Characterization 83

3.1 The Nature of Surfaces 83

3.2 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Surface Layers 84

3.2.1 Deformed Layer 84

3.2.2 Chemically Reacted Layer 85

3.2.3 Physisorbed Layer 86

3.2.4 Chemisorbed Layer 87

3.2.5 Surface Tension, Surface Energy, and Wetting 87

3.2.6 Methods of Characterization of Surface Layers 90

3.3 Analysis of Surface Roughness 90

3.3.1 Average Roughness Parameters 92

3.3.2 Statistical Analyses 99

3.3.3 Fractal Characterization 125

3.3.4 Practical Considerations in the Measurement of Roughness Parameters 127

3.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness 131

3.4.1 Mechanical Stylus Method 133

3.4.2 Optical Methods 137

3.4.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Methods 155

3.4.4 Fluid Methods 163

3.4.5 Electrical Method 166

3.4.6 Electron Microscopy Methods 166

3.4.7 Analysis of Measured Height Distribution 168

3.4.8 Comparison of Measurement Methods 168

3.5 Closure 174

Problems 175

References 176

Further Reading 179

4 Contact between Solid Surfaces 181

4.1 Introduction 181

4.2 Analysis of the Contacts 182

4.2.1 Single Asperity Contact of Homogeneous and Frictionless Solids 182

4.2.2 Single Asperity Contact of Layered Solids in Frictionless and Frictional Contacts 199

4.2.3 Multiple Asperity Dry Contacts 209

4.3 Measurement of the Real Area of Contact 251

4.3.1 Review of Measurement Techniques 251

4.3.2 Comparison of Different Measurement Techniques 255

4.3.3 Typical Measurements 259

4.4 Closure 262

Problems 264

References 265

Further Reading 269

5 Adhesion 271

5.1 Introduction 271

5.2 Solid–Solid Contact 272

5.2.1 Covalent Bond 276

5.2.2 Ionic or Electrostatic Bond 276

5.2.3 Metallic Bond 277

5.2.4 Hydrogen Bond 278

5.2.5 Van der Waals Bond 278

5.2.6 Free Surface Energy Theory of Adhesion 279

5.2.7 Polymer Adhesion 287

5.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact 288

5.3.1 Idealized Geometries 290

5.3.2 Multiple-Asperity Contacts 305

5.4 Closure 316

Problems 317

References 317

Further Reading 320

6 Friction 321

6.1 Introduction 321

6.2 Solid–Solid Contact 323

6.2.1 Rules of Sliding Friction 323

6.2.2 Basic Mechanisms of Sliding Friction 328

6.2.3 Other Mechanisms of Sliding Friction 349

6.2.4 Friction Transitions During Sliding 354

6.2.5 Static Friction 356

6.2.6 Stick-Slip 358

6.2.7 Rolling Friction 362

6.3 Liquid-Mediated Contact 366

6.4 Friction of Materials 369

6.4.1 Friction of Metals and Alloys 371

6.4.2 Friction of Ceramics 375

6.4.3 Friction of Polymers 380

6.4.4 Friction of Solid Lubricants 383

6.5 Closure 392

Problems 396

References 397

Further Reading 400

7 Interface Temperature of Sliding Surfaces 403

7.1 Introduction 403

7.2 Thermal Analysis 404

7.2.1 Fundamental Heat Conduction Solutions 405

7.2.2 High Contact-Stress Condition (Ar /Aa ∼ 1) (Individual Contact) 406

7.2.3 Low Contact-Stress Condition (Ar /Aa I 1) (Multiple-Asperity Contact) 415

7.3 Interface Temperature Measurements 431

7.3.1 Thermocouple and Thin-Film Temperature Sensors 431

7.3.2 Radiation Detection Techniques 434

7.3.3 Metallographic Techniques 440

7.3.4 Liquid Crystals 441

7.4 Closure 442

Problems 444

References 444

8 Wear 447

8.1 Introduction 447

8.2 Types of Wear Mechanisms 448

8.2.1 Adhesive Wear 448

8.2.2 Abrasive Wear (by Plastic Deformation and Fracture) 459

8.2.3 Fatigue Wear 475

8.2.4 Impact Wear 484

8.2.5 Chemical (Corrosive) Wear 493

8.2.6 Electrical Arc-Induced Wear 495

8.2.7 Fretting and Fretting Corrosion 497

8.3 Types of Particles Present in Wear Debris 499

8.3.1 Plate-Shaped Particles 499

8.3.2 Ribbon-Shaped Particles 499

8.3.3 Spherical Particles 500

8.3.4 Irregularly Shaped Particles 503

8.4 Wear of Materials 503

8.4.1 Wear of Metals and Alloys 505

8.4.2 Wear of Ceramics 510

8.4.3 Wear of Polymers 517

8.5 Closure 522

Appendix 8.A Indentation Cracking in Brittle Materials 525

8.A.1 Blunt Indenter 526

8.A.2 Sharp Indenter 526

Appendix 8.B Analysis of Failure Data Using the Weibull Distribution 532

8.B.1 General Expression of the Weibull Distribution 532

8.B.2 Graphical Representation of a Weibull Distribution 534

Problems 538

References 539

Further Reading 543

9 Fluid Film Lubrication 545

9.1 Introduction 545

9.2 Regimes of Fluid Film Lubrication 546

9.2.1 Hydrostatic Lubrication 546

9.2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 546

9.2.3 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 548

9.2.4 Mixed Lubrication 549

9.2.5 Boundary Lubrication 549

9.3 Viscous Flow and the Reynolds Equation 550

9.3.1 Viscosity and Newtonian Fluids 550

9.3.2 Fluid Flow 555

9.4 Hydrostatic Lubrication 569

9.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 579

9.5.1 Thrust Bearings 581

9.5.2 Journal Bearings 594

9.5.3 Squeeze Film Bearings 613

9.5.4 Gas-Lubricated Bearings 616

9.6 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 632

9.6.1 Forms of Contacts 633

9.6.2 Line Contact 634

9.6.3 Point Contact 644

9.6.4 Thermal Correction 645

9.6.5 Lubricant Rheology 646

9.7 Closure 647

Problems 649

References 650

Further Reading 652

10 Boundary Lubrication and Lubricants 655

10.1 Introduction 655

10.2 Boundary Lubrication 656

10.2.1 Effect of Adsorbed Gases 658

10.2.2 Effect of Monolayers and Multilayers 659

10.2.3 Effect of Chemical Films 662

10.2.4 Effect of Chain Length (or Molecular Weight) 664

10.3 Liquid Lubricants 665

10.3.1 Principal Classes of Lubricants 665

10.3.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Lubricants 671

10.3.3 Additives 680

10.4 Ionic Liquids 681

10.4.1 Composition of Ionic Liquids 682

10.4.2 Properties of Ionic Liquids 684

10.4.3 Lubrication Mechanisms of ILs 685

10.4.4 Issues on the Applicability of Ionic Liquids as Lubricants 685

10.5 Greases 686

10.6 Closure 686

References 687

Further Reading 688

11 Nanotribology 689

11.1 Introduction 689

11.2 SFA Studies 691

11.2.1 Description of an SFA 692

11.2.2 Static (Equilibrium), Dynamic, and Shear Properties of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films 694

11.3 AFM/FFM Studies 703

11.3.1 Description of AFM/FFM and Various Measurement Techniques 704

11.3.2 Surface Imaging, Friction, and Adhesion 712

11.3.3 Wear, Scratching, Local Deformation, and Fabrication/Machining 741

11.3.4 Indentation 752

11.3.5 Boundary Lubrication 758

11.4 Atomic-Scale Computer Simulations 773

11.4.1 Interatomic Forces and Equations of Motion 773

11.4.2 Interfacial Solid Junctions 775

11.4.3 Interfacial Liquid Junctions and Confined Films 776

11.5 Closure 778

References 781

Further Reading 788

12 Friction and Wear Screening Test Methods 789

12.1 Introduction 789

12.2 Design Methodology 789

12.2.1 Simulation 790

12.2.2 Acceleration 790

12.2.3 Specimen Preparation 790

12.2.4 Friction and Wear Measurements 791

12.3 Typical Test Geometries 794

12.3.1 Sliding Friction and Wear Tests 794

12.3.2 Abrasion Tests 797

12.3.3 Rolling-Contact Fatigue Tests 799

12.3.4 Solid-Particle Erosion Test 799

12.3.5 Corrosion Tests 800

12.4 Closure 802

References 802

Further Reading 803

13 Bulk Materials, Coatings, and Surface Treatments for Tribology 805

13.1 Introduction 805

13.2 Bulk Materials 806

13.2.1 Metals and Alloys 808

13.2.2 Ceramics and Cermets 826

13.2.3 Ceramic-Metal Composites 840

13.2.4 Solid Lubricants and Self-Lubricating Solids 841

13.3 Coatings and Surface Treatments 861

13.3.1 Coating Deposition Techniques 864

13.3.2 Surface Treatment Techniques 885

13.3.3 Criteria for Selecting Coating Material/Deposition and Surface Treatment Techniques 890

13.4 Closure 892

References 892

Further Reading 896

14 Tribological Components and Applications 899

14.1 Introduction 899

14.2 Common Tribological Components 899

14.2.1 Sliding-Contact Bearings 899

14.2.2 Rolling-Contact Bearings 901

14.2.3 Seals 903

14.2.4 Gears 905

14.2.5 Cams and Tappets 907

14.2.6 Piston Rings 908

14.2.7 Electrical Brushes 910

14.3 MEMS/NEMS 912

14.3.1 MEMS 914

14.3.2 NEMS 921

14.3.3 BioMEMS 921

14.3.4 Microfabrication Processes 922

14.4 Material Processing 923

14.4.1 Cutting Tools 923

14.4.2 Grinding and Lapping 927

14.4.3 Forming Processes 927

14.4.4 Cutting Fluids 928

14.5 Industrial Applications 930

14.5.1 Automotive Engines 930

14.5.2 Gas Turbine Engines 932

14.5.3 Railroads 934

14.5.4 Magnetic Storage Devices 935

14.6 Closure 942

References 943

Further Reading 947

15 Green Tribology and Biomimetics 949

15.1 Introduction 949

15.2 Green Tribology 949

15.2.1 Twelve Principles of Green Tribology 950

15.2.2 Areas of Green Tribology 951

15.3 Biomimetics 954

15.3.1 Lessons from Nature 955

15.3.2 Industrial Significance 958

15.4 Closure 959

References 959

Further Reading 961

Appendix A Units, Conversions, and Useful Relations 963

A.1 Fundamental Constants 963

A.2 Conversion of Units 963

A.3 Useful Relations 964

Index 965

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Dr Bhushan is Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor as well as Director of the Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics at The Ohio State University. During his career he has received a number of awards and accolades as well as being central to teaching and formulating the curriculum in Tribology-related topics.  He is a Fellow and Life Member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, as well as various other professional societies.

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“Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and graduate students in engineering, researchers/faculty, and professionals/practitioners.”  (Choice, 1 October 2013)

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