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E-book

Automotive Inter-networking

ISBN: 978-1-119-94510-9
448 pages
February 2012
Automotive Inter-networking (1119945100) cover image
A complete introduction tocar-to-X communications networking

Automotive Inter-networking will introduce a range of new network and system technologies for vehicle safety, entertainment and comfort systems currently being researched and developed. C2X networking is not only a matter of technology, but is also very closely related to policy-making about deployment. This book will provide the background on technical developments but will also discuss the potential benefits, costs and risks. Also discussed will be concepts related to application of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication technologies for various purposes such as automobile safety enhancement, vehicle user applications for comfort and convenience and efficiency along with other potential commercial applications.

Application domains will build the starting point for an analysis of the requirements on suitable mobile network technology and the book will look at how well existing and new systems match these requirements. New automotive-specific technologies are presented in detail, explaining millimeter wave short range systems and special automotive network protocols. Specially designed system services and security mechanisms are introduced and system architecture, radio spectrum use, medium access control, network protocols and security concepts and considered.  Finally, the book will present the current world-wide standardization activities, deployment strategies and an outlook about the evolvement of inter-vehicle communications in the next decades.

  • Presents a comprehensive top-down approach to the newly evolving car-to-X communications networking
  • Provides a broad overview of all relevant C2X communication topics
  • Written by well known experts in the field
  • Predicts the outlook of the evolvement of inter-vehicle communications in the next decades
  • Includes illustrations and high-level technical sketches of application domains and photographs, 3D renderings and professional graphical sketches of current prototypes
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Preface xi

List of Abbreviations xiii

1 Automotive Internetworking: The Evolution Towards Connected and Cooperative Vehicles 1

1.1 Evolution of In-Vehicle Electronics 1

1.2 Motivation for Connected Vehicles 4

1.3 Terminology 7

1.4 Stakeholders 10

1.5 Outline of this Book 10

References 12

2 Application Classifications and Requirements 13

2.1 Classification of Applications and their Implications 14

2.1.1 Driving-Related Applications 15

2.1.2 Vehicle-Related Applications 19

2.1.3 Passenger-Related Applications 22

2.2 Requirements and Overall System Properties 25

2.3 Overview on Suitable Communication Technologies 28

2.3.1 Communication Technologies 28

2.3.2 Suitability for AutoNet Applications 31

2.4 Summary 34

References 34

3 System Architecture 37

3.1 Domain View of AutoNets 37

3.2 ISO/OSI Reference Model View 40

3.3 Profiling 42

3.4 Standardised Architectures 43

3.4.1 Architecture of the C2C Communication Consortium (C2C-CC) 44

3.4.2 ISO TC204 CALM Architecture 45

3.4.3 ETSI TC ITS Architecture: EN 302 655 47

3.4.4 IEEE WAVE Architecture Featuring IEEE802.11p and IEEE1609.x Standards 49

3.5 Subsystem Architectures 50

3.5.1 Vehicle Architecture 51

3.5.2 Roadside Architecture 55

3.5.3 Infrastructure Architecture 56

3.5.4 Mobile Device Architecture 61

3.6 Summary 62

References 63

4 Applications: Functionality and Protocols 65

4.1 Foresighted Safety Case Study: Environmental Notifications 67

4.1.1 Data Collection and Individual Situation Analysis 68

4.1.2 Cooperative Situation Analysis 71

4.1.3 Distributed Knowledge Management 73

4.1.4 Individual Relevance and Interface to the Driver 75

4.1.5 Data Security and Privacy 77

4.1.6 Reliable Estimation of the Current Driving Condition 78

4.1.7 Communication and Information Dissemination 79

4.1.8 Standardisation Issues 80

4.2 Active Safety Case Study: Cooperative Collision Avoidance and Intersection Assistance 81

4.2.1 Data Collection 82

4.2.2 Situation Analysis and Application Logic 83

4.2.3 Knowledge Management 88

4.2.4 Communication 90

4.2.5 Security and Privacy 93

4.2.6 Driver Interaction 95

4.3 Green Driving Case Study: Traffic Lights Assistance 98

4.3.1 Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory 99

4.3.2 Example: TRAVOLUTION 107

4.4 Business and Convenience Case Study: Insurance and Financial Services 107

4.4.1 Accident Management Services 108

4.4.2 Examples for Insurance and Financial Services (IFS) 116

References 118

5 Application Support 121

5.1 Application Support in the AutoNet Generic Reference Protocol Stack 121

5.2 Communication Aspects in the Application Support 123

5.2.1 CAM: Cooperative Awareness Messages 123

5.2.2 DENM: Decentralised Environmental Notification Messages 125

5.3 AutoNet Facilities 125

5.3.1 Application Plane 126

5.3.2 Information Plane 128

5.3.3 Communication Plane 130

5.4 Implementation Issues for the Application Support Layer 131

5.5 Summary 133

References 133

6 Transport Layer 135

6.1 Transport Layer Integration in the AutoNet Generic Reference Protocol Stack 135

6.1.1 AutoNet Transport 137

6.1.2 TCP, UDP 138

6.2 TCP in AutoNets 139

6.2.1 Congestion Control in TCP 140

6.2.2 Impact of AutoNets 141

6.2.3 Enhancements of TCP and Technical Requirements for AutoNet Scenarios 143

6.2.4 The MOCCA Transport Protocol 144

6.2.5 Evaluation Results 148

6.3 Summary 151

References 152

7 Networking 155

7.1 Networking Principles in the AutoNet Generic Reference Protocol Stack 155

7.1.1 Network Layer Functionality in AutoNets 155

7.1.2 Network Protocol Data Units 158

7.2 AutoNet Ad-Hoc Networking 160

7.2.1 AutoNet Ad-Hoc Network Characteristics 160

7.2.2 AutoNet Ad-Hoc Network Addressing and Routing 165

7.2.3 Beaconing 176

7.2.4 Network Utility Maximisation in AutoNets 177

7.3 AutoNet Cellular Networking 187

7.3.1 Communication Architecture for AutoNet Cellular Networking 189

7.3.2 Deployment Strategies 190

7.3.3 Interactions and Cross-Layer Optimisations 192

7.4 IPv6 and Mobility Extensions 192

7.4.1 IPv6 193

7.4.2 Mobility Extensions 194

7.4.3 Deployment Issues 197

References 200

8 Physical Communication Technologies 205

8.1 Wireless Networks in the AutoNet Generic Reference Protocol Stack 206

8.2 Automotive WLAN and DSRC 208

8.2.1 Spectrum Policies 209

8.2.2 IEEE 802.11p 213

8.2.3 ETSI G5A 221

8.3 Utility-Centric Medium Access in IEEE 802.11p 221

8.3.1 Data Differentiation 221

8.3.2 Inter-Vehicle Contention 222

8.3.3 Cross-Layer Issues 223

8.3.4 Evaluation of Utility-Centric Medium Access 225

8.4 Technology Comparison 230

8.5 Conclusion 231

References 231

9 Security and Privacy 233

9.1 Stakes, Assets, Threats and Attacks 235

9.1.1 Stakeholders and Assets 235

9.1.2 Threats and Attacks 236

9.2 Challenges and Requirements 238

9.3 AutoNet Security Architecture and Management 241

9.4 Security Services 244

9.4.1 Cryptographic Mechanisms 244

9.4.2 Digital Signatures 246

9.5 Certification 247

9.5.1 Trust 247

9.5.2 Trusted Third Platforms: Certificate Authorities 249

9.5.3 Certificate Generation and Distribution 250

9.5.4 Certificate Revocation 253

9.6 Securing Vehicles 253

9.7 Secure Communication 254

9.7.1 Secure Messaging 254

9.7.2 Secure Routing and Forwarding 255

9.7.3 Secure Group Communication 255

9.7.4 Plausibility Checks 255

9.8 Privacy 256

9.8.1 Secret Information 256

9.9 Conclusion 258

References 259

10 System Management 261

10.1 System Management in the AutoNet Generic Reference Protocol Stack 261

10.2 Functional Management Building Blocks 263

10.3 Selected Management Issues of an AutoNet Station 264

10.3.1 Cost/Benefit Management 264

10.3.2 Congestion Control 265

10.3.3 Mobility Management 265

10.3.4 TCP Management 268

10.4 Implementation Issues of the Management Layer 270

10.5 Summary 271

References 271

11 Research Methodologies 273

11.1 Early Activities to Investigate AutoNets 274

11.1.1 Activities at the University of Duisburg 274

11.1.2 Activities at the Ohio State University 275

11.2 Methodologies 277

11.2.1 Model Domains for AutoNets 278

11.2.2 Dependency Examples 280

11.3 Simulation Methodology 282

11.3.1 Communication Network Simulation 284

11.3.2 Traffic Simulation 287

11.3.3 Implementation Issues 290

11.4 Field Operational Testing Methodology 298

11.4.1 Applications and Requirements 300

11.4.2 System Architecture 302

11.4.3 Trials 304

11.4.4 Analysis 306

11.5 Summary 307

References 307

12 Markets 309

12.1 Current Market Developments 310

12.1.1 Technological Push 311

12.1.2 Economic Pull 311

12.1.3 Stakeholder Analysis 312

12.2 Challenges 327

12.2.1 Harmonisation and Standardisation 328

12.2.2 Life Cycle 330

12.2.3 Costs and Revenues in an Emerging Business Ecosystem 330

12.2.4 Customer Acceptance 331

12.3 Driving the Emergence of a Coherent Business Ecosystem 333

12.3.1 Strategies for the Development of a Modular Business Ecosystem 333

12.3.2 Early Examples of Telematic Business Ecosystems 339

12.4 Summary 342

References 342

13 Impact and Future Projections 345

A Appendix 351

A.1 Standardisation Bodies for AutoNets 351

A.1.1 ETSI 351

A.1.2 CEN 352

A.1.3 ISO 353

A.1.4 IETF 354

A.1.5 IEEE 354

A.1.6 Car2Car Communication Consortium 354

A.2 Research Projects on AutoNets 355

A.2.1 Early Activities 355

A.2.2 The eSafety Initiative 358

A.2.3 COMeSafety 360

A.2.4 COOPERS 361

A.2.5 CVIS 361

A.2.6 SAFESPOT 363

A.2.7 SeVeCom 363

A.2.8 GeoNet 363

A.2.9 FRAME, E-FRAME 364

A.2.10 VII and IntelliDrive 364

A.2.11 Travolution 365

A.2.12 Aktiv 365

A.2.13 PRE-DRIVE C2X 366

A.2.14 simTD 367

References 368

Index 369

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