E-book

# Antenna Theory and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-94521-5
280 pages
January 2012

## Description

This comprehensive text on antenna theory explains the origin of radiation and discusses antenna parameters in-depth

This book offers an in-depth coverage of fundamental antenna theory, and shows how to apply this in practice. The author discusses electromagnetic radiation and antenna characteristics such as impedance, radiation pattern, polarization, gain and efficiency. In addition, the book provides readers with the necessary tools for analyzing complex antennas and for designing new ones. Furthermore, a refresher chapter on vector algebra, including gradient, divergence and curl operation is included. Throughout the book ample examples of employing the derived theory are given and all chapters are concluded with problems, giving the reader the opportunity to test his/her acquired knowledge.

Key Features:

• Covers the mathematical and physical background that is needed to understand electromagnetic radiation and antennas
• Discusses the origin of radiation and provides an in-depth explanation of antenna parameters
• Explores all the necessary steps in antenna analysis allowing the reader to understand and analyze new antenna structures
• Contains a chapter on vector algebra, which is often a stumbling block for learners in this field
• Includes examples and a list of problems at the end of each chapter
• Accompanied by a website containing solutions to the problems (for instructors) and CST modeling files (www.wiley.com/go/visser_antennas

This book will serve as an invaluable reference for advanced (last year Bsc, Msc) students in antenna and RF engineering, wireless communications, electrical engineering, radio engineers and other professionals needing a reference on antenna theory. It will also be of interest to advanced/senior radio engineers, designers and developers.

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Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

List of Abbreviations xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 The Early History of Antennas 1

1.2 Antennas and Electromagnetic Radiation 2

1.2.2 Short Wire Dipole Radiation 5

1.3 The Modern History of Antennas 6

1.4 Frequency Spectrum and Antenna Types 8

1.4.1 Dipole Antennas 8

1.4.2 Loop Antennas 9

1.4.3 Aperture Antennas 10

1.4.4 Reflector Antennas 10

1.4.5 Array Antennas 11

1.4.6 Modern Antennas 11

1.5 Organization of the Book 12

1.6 Problems 13

References 13

2 Antenna System-Level Performance Parameters 15

2.1.1 Field Regions 16

2.1.3 Planar Cuts 19

2.1.4 Power Patterns 22

2.1.5 Directivity and Gain 25

2.1.6 Antenna Beamwidth 28

2.2 Antenna Impedance and Bandwidth 29

2.3 Polarization 32

2.3.1 Elliptical Polarization 33

2.3.2 Circular Polarization 35

2.3.3 Linear Polarization 35

2.3.4 Axial Ratio 36

2.4 Antenna Effective Area and Vector Effective Length 38

2.4.1 Effective Area 38

2.4.2 Vector Effective Length 40

2.7 Problems 46

References 47

3 Vector Analysis 49

3.2 Products 50

3.2.1 Scalar Product or Dot Product 50

3.2.2 Vector Product or Cross Product 51

3.2.3 Triple Product 52

3.3 Differentiation 53

3.3.2 Divergence 55

3.3.3 Curl 57

3.4 Problems 61

4.1 Maxwell Equations 63

4.2 Vector Potential 64

4.3 Far-Field Approximations 69

4.3.1 Magnetic Field 69

4.3.2 Electric Field 73

4.4 Reciprocity 75

4.4.1 Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem 75

4.4.2 Antenna Reciprocity 77

4.5 Problems 79

References 79

5 Dipole Antennas 81

5.1 Elementary Dipole 81

5.1.2 Input Impedance 86

5.2 Non-Infinitesimal Dipole Antenna 87

5.2.2 Input Impedance 96

5.3 Printed Monopole and Inverted-F Antennas 97

5.3.1 Application of Theory 98

5.3.2 Planar Monopole Antenna Design 99

5.3.3 Printed UWB Antenna Design 105

5.3.4 Miniature Monopole with Cable Current Suppression 113

5.3.5 Inverted-F Antenna Design 120

5.4 Problems 128

References 129

6 Loop Antennas 131

6.1 General Constant Current Loop 131

6.1.2 Input Impedance 136

6.1.3 Small Loop Antenna 137

6.1.4 Comparison of Short Dipole and Small Loop Antenna 138

6.2 Printed Loop Antenna 139

6.2.1 Application of Theory 139

6.2.2 Design of a Printed Loop Antenna 143

6.3 Problems 149

References 152

7 Aperture Antennas 153

7.1 Magnetic Sources 154

7.2 Uniqueness Theorem 156

7.3 Equivalence Principle 158

7.5 Uniform Distribution in a Rectangular Aperture 161

7.6 Uniform Distribution in a Circular Aperture 166

7.7 Microstrip Antennas 170

7.7.1 Application of Theory 172

7.7.2 Design of a Linearly Polarized Microstrip Antenna 175

7.7.3 Design of a Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna 179

7.8 Problems 185

References 188

8 Array Antennas 189

8.1 A Linear Array of Non-Isotropic Point-Source Radiators 189

8.2 Array Factor 195

8.3 Side Lobes and Grating Lobes 195

8.3.1 Side-Lobe Level 196

8.3.2 Grating Lobes 196

8.4 Linear Phase Taper 197

8.5 Grating Lobes 202

8.6 Special Topics 203

8.6.1 Mutual Coupling 203

8.6.2 Antenna Diversity 212

8.6.3 Sequential Rotation and Phasing 213

8.7 Array Antenna Design 217

8.7.1 Theory 220

8.7.2 A Linear Microstrip Patch Array Antenna 221

8.8 Problems 229

References 230

Appendix A Effective Aperture and Directivity 231

Appendix B Vector Formulas 235

Appendix C Complex Analysis 237

C.1 Complex Numbers 237

C.2 Use of Complex Variables 240

Appendix D Physical Constants and Material Parameters 243

References 244

Appendix E Two-Port Network Parameters 245

Appendix F Transmission Line Theory 249

F.1 Distributed Parameters 249

F.2 Guided Waves 252

F.2.1 VSWR and Reflection Factor 254

F.2.2 Impedance and Relative Impedance 254

F.3 Input Impedance of a Transmission Line 255

F.4 Terminated Lossless Transmission Line 255

F.4.2 Short Circuit 256

F.4.3 Open Circuit 256

F.4.4 Imaginary Unit Termination 257

F.4.5 Real Termination 257

F.5 Quarter Wavelength Impedance Transformer 257

Appendix G Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) 259

References 260

Index 261

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## Author Information

Hubregt J. Visser, imec-NL and Eindhoven University, The Netherlands
Hubregt J. Visser received the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, in 1989.Upon graduation he joined TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, where he has participated in several projects concerning near-field antenna measurements, monolithic microwave integrated circuits design, and phased-array antenna design. From mid 1996 to mid 1997, he was stationed at the European Space Research and Technology Centre, RF Systems Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, where he worked on infinite waveguide array antenna modeling. In 2001 he joined TNO Science and Industry, Eindhoven, The Netherlands where he has been involved in antenna miniaturization and rectenna projects. In 2009 he joined imec-Netherlands where he is involved in wireless energy transfer research.
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• Covers the mathematical and physical background that is needed to understand electromagnetic radiation and antennas
• Discusses the origin of radiation and provides an in-depth explanation of antenna parameters
• Explores all the necessary steps in antenna analysis allowing the reader to understand and analyze new antenna structures
• Contains a chapter on vector algebra, which is often a stumbling block for learners in this field
• Includes examples and a list of problems at the end of each chapter
• Accompanied by a website containing solutions to the problems (for instructors) and CST modeling files (www.wiley.com/go/visser_antennas
See More

## Reviews

“This book is a good reference for advanced students in antenna and RF engineering, wireless communications, electrical engineering, radio engineers and other professionals needing a reference on antenna theory. It will also be of interest to advanced or senior radio engineers, designers and developers as a practical guide and reference.  It assumes knowledge of electromagnetic theory and vector analysis but is a good, compact reference book for antennas.”  (Microwave Journal, 1 January  2013)

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