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Sustainability: How the Cosmetics Industry is Greening Up

Amarjit Sahota (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-94554-3
368 pages
February 2014
Sustainability: How the Cosmetics Industry is Greening Up (1119945542) cover image

Sustainability has come to the fore in the cosmetics and personal care industry. Rising ethical consumerism and the need for resource efficiency are making cosmetic companies – small, independent firms to global giants – take steps towards sustainable development.  

Sustainability: How the Cosmetics Industry is Greening Up discusses the growing importance of sustainability in the cosmetics industry, highlighting the various ways organisations can address the economic, environmental and social aspects.  How can the cosmetics industry make a difference in terms of ingredients, formulations, packaging, CSR, operations, and green marketing?

Topics covered include:

  • Environmental and social impacts of cosmetic products
  • Ethical sourcing and biodiversity
  • Renewable energy and waste management
  • Green formulations and ingredients
  • Green marketing issues and consumer behaviour
  • Green standards, certification schemes and indices in the cosmetics industry

Industry experts share their experiences on how they are tackling the challenges of sustainability: from raw material procurements, manufacturing, business processes, to distribution and marketing to consumers.  The book concludes with some future growth projections; what are some of the shortcomings in sustainability in the cosmetics industry and what can we expect to see in the future?

Sustainability: How the Cosmetics Industry is Greening Up discusses business and technical issues in all areas of sustainable product development, from sourcing ingredients, to formulation, manufacture and packaging.

Covering a diverse range of subjects, this book appeals to professionals in many key sectors of the cosmetics and personal care industry; cosmetic chemists, formulation scientists, R&D directors, policy makers, business and marketing executives.  It is also of relevance to academic researchers working in cosmetic chemistry and sustainable process development.

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About the Contributors xv

Foreword xxiii

Preface xxvii

1 Introduction to Sustainability 1
Amarjit Sahota

1.1 Introduction to Book 1

1.2 Introduction to Sustainability 2

1.3 Ethics in the Cosmetics Industry 3

1.4 Drivers of Sustainability 6

1.4.1 Rise in Ethical Consumerism 7

1.4.2 Pressure from the Media and NGOs 7

1.4.3 Environmental Changes and Finite Resources 8

1.4.4 Pressure from the Supply Chain 9

1.4.5 Laws and Regulation 9

1.4.6 Business Benefits 10

1.5 Sustainability Reporting 10

1.5.1 CSR and Sustainability Reports 10

1.5.2 Communicating to Consumers 11

1.6 Guide to Book Chapters 12

References 15

2 Environmental Impacts of Cosmetic Products 17

Part 1: The Growing Importance of Metrics 17
Xavier Vital

2.1.1 Corporate Carbon Footprinting 18

2.1.2 Ecodesign 25

2.1.3 Get Ready for the Future 27

2.1.4 Conclusions 30

Acknowledgement 31

References 31

Part 2: Innovating to Reduce the Environmental Footprint, the L’Oreal Example 31
Jean-Florent Campion, Rachel Barre, and Laurent Gilbert

2.2.1 Introduction 31

2.2.2 Product Eco-Design 32

2.2.3 Responsible Sourcing and Biodiversity Preservation 35

2.2.4 Responsible Production 38

2.2.5 Reference Actions – Some Examples of Key Achievements 40

2.2.6 Conclusion 46

Acknowledgements 46

References 46

3 The Social Footprint of a Beauty Company 47
Bas Schneiders

3.1 The Relationship between Cosmetics and Sustainability 47

3.2 The Growing Significance of Sustainability 48

3.2.1 Current Situation 48

3.2.2 Solution Strategies 49

3.3 Sustainability as a Social Challenge for Cosmetics Companies 50

3.3.1 Social Footprinting 50

3.3.2 Critical Areas with Social Impacts 50

3.3.3 Social Diversity and Differentiation 52

3.4 Case Study: Weleda: A Value-Oriented Business 53

3.4.1 Ethical Sourcing 55

3.4.2 Employee Policy 62

3.4.3 Corporate Philanthropy 65

3.4.4 Economic Sustainability and Value Creation 66

3.5 Conclusions 68

Recommended Reading 68

References 68

4 Ethical Sourcing of Raw Materials 69

Part 1: Ethical Sourcing – The Givaudan Approach 69
Remi Pulverail

4.1.1 The Business Case for Ethical Sourcing 69

4.1.2 Making Ethical Sourcing a Reality 70

4.1.3 Working with Customers 71

4.1.4 Building Supplier Partnerships 72

4.1.5 Securing the Future of Benzoin in Laos 72

4.1.6 Tracing the Origins of Ethical Vanilla in Madagascar 74

4.1.7 Moh´eli Partnership Rediscovers Ylang Ylang 76

4.1.8 Equipment Loans Support Sustainable Sandalwood Production 77

4.1.9 Protecting Biodiversity and Tonka Bean Supply in Venezuela 79

4.1.10 Is Natural Sustainable? 80

4.1.11 Conclusion 80

Part 2: Innovation and Ethical Sourcing – Beraca’s Experience 81
Filipe Tomazelli Sabara

4.2.1 Introduction 81

4.2.2 Challenges Related to Ethical Sourcing 82

4.2.3 Beraca and the Biodiversity Enhancement Programme 83

4.2.4 Working in Partnership with Local Communities 85

4.2.5 Success Stories 89

4.2.6 What is Yet to be Achieved 93

4.2.7 Conclusion 94

References 95

5 Biodiversity in the Cosmetics Industry 97
Eduardo Escobedo and Rik Kutsch Lojenga

5.1 Introduction 97

5.1.1 The Critical Loss of Biodiversity and Its Impact on the Cosmetics Industry 99

5.2 Why Should the Cosmetics Industry Care about Protecting Biodiversity? 100

5.2.1 Biodiversity as a Sound Business Strategy 101

5.2.2 Ecosystem Services 102

5.3 How is the Policy Arena Changing and What Implications Does This Have for the Industry? 103

5.3.1 The Convention on Biological Diversity 103

5.3.2 The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 104

5.3.3 The Nagoya Protocol 106

5.3.4 The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 107

5.4 Biodiversity Barometer: Consumer Views and Expectations on Biodiversity 109

5.4.1 Biodiversity Awareness is Growing 110

5.4.2 Increased Awareness Brings Greater Expectations 111

5.4.3 Opportunities for Pioneering Companies 111

5.5 Ethical Sourcing in Practice 114

5.5.1 Putting Ethical Sourcing of Biodiversity into Practice 114

5.5.2 Conservation of Biodiversity 116

5.5.3 Sustainable Use of Biodiversity 118

5.5.4 Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing 120

5.6 Conclusions 124

References 125

6 Sustainable Packaging 127

Part 1: Introduction 127
Amarjit Sahota

References 129

Part 2: Sustainable Packaging for Cosmetic Products – Using Biobased Carbon Content and Designing for End-of-Life 129
Ramani Narayan

6.2.1 Introduction 129

6.2.2 Carbon Footprint Value Proposition 130

6.2.3 Material Carbon Versus Process Carbon Footprint 131

6.2.4 Exemplars of Zero Material Carbon Footprint Resins 132

6.2.5 Measuring Biobased Carbon Content 134

6.2.6 End-of-Life for the Packaging – Recycling and Biodegradable-Compostability 135

6.2.7 Science of Biodegradability 136

6.2.8 Summary 138

References 139

Part 3: The Role of Design for Sustainable Packaging 139
Anne van Haeften

6.3.1 Introduction 139

6.3.2 The Design Agency 140

6.3.3 Packaging Design 141

6.3.4 The Brand 142

6.3.5 Innovation and Design 144

6.3.6 Graphical Component 144

6.3.7 Post-Use Packaging 145

6.3.8 Lush Case Study: Get Naked! 145

6.3.9 Conclusion 147

References 148

Part 4: Sustainable Packaging – Aveda Case Study 148
John A. Delfausse

6.4.1 A Commitment to the Environment – the Aveda Mission 148

6.4.2 Direction from the Top 148

6.4.3 A Great Beginning 149

6.4.4 Real Sustainability 153

7 Energy and Waste Management 155
Charles J. ‘Chuck’ Bennett and Michael S. Brown

7.1 Introduction to Energy and Waste Management in the Cosmetics Industry 155

7.1.1 Global Resource Constraints and the Challenge for Business 155

7.1.2 Energy Issues and the Cosmetics Industry 156

7.1.3 Wastes and Personal Care Products 158

7.2 Aveda – the Company 159

7.3 Energy Management in Aveda 161

7.3.1 Process Energy Opportunities 162

7.3.2 Facility Energy Improvements 162

7.3.3 Results and Current Situation 163

7.3.4 Renewable Energy and Emissions Offsets 164

7.3.5 Other Dimensions of Aveda’s Energy Management – Shipping and Product Use 166

7.4 Waste Management at Aveda 167

7.4.1 Waste Management in Operations 167

7.4.2 Recycling beyond Blaine 169

7.4.3 Products and Packaging 169

7.5 Summary 173

References 173

8 Corporate Social Responsibility and Philanthropy 175

Part 1: Introduction 175
Amarjit Sahota

8.1.1 Corporate Social Responsibility 175

8.1.2 Corporate Philanthropy 176

References 178

Part 2: BURT’S BEES Case Study 178
Paula Alexander

8.2.1 Value-Driven Sustainability Leadership 180

8.2.2 The Greater Good Business Model: An Integrated Approach to Sustainability 181

8.2.3 Strategic Giving 184

8.2.4 Employee Engagement 186

8.2.5 Summary 188

References 188

Part 3: Dr. Bronner’s Magic Soaps: Business as Activism 189
David Bronner

8.3.1 Introduction 189

8.3.2 Company Background 189

8.3.3 Fair Trade Projects 191

8.3.4 Corporate Activism 194

8.3.5 Summary 195

9 Green Formulations and Ingredients 197
Judi Beerling

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Definitions 198

9.2.1 Synthetic Ingredient 198

9.2.2 Natural Ingredient 198

9.2.3 Naturally Derived Ingredient 199

9.2.4 Nature Identical Ingredient 199

9.2.5 Organic 199

9.3 How Natural are Current Market Products? 200

9.4 Synthetic Ingredients Normally Absent from Natural/Organic Cosmetics 202

9.5 Available Green Replacements for Synthetic Cosmetic Ingredients 204

9.6 Formulation Issues with Green Ingredients 214

9.7 Summary 214

References 215

10 Green Standards, Certification and Indices 217
Judi Beerling and Amarjit Sahota

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Natural and Organic Cosmetic Standards 218

10.2.1 Major European Standards for Natural and Organic Products 219

10.2.2 BDIH (Germany) 219

10.2.3 Ecocert Greenlife (France) 220

10.2.4 CosmeBio (France) 221

10.2.5 Soil Association (UK) 221

10.2.6 ICEA (Italy) 222

10.2.7 COSMOS 222

10.2.8 Natrue (Belgium) 224

10.2.9 Other European Standards 225

10.2.10 Major North American Standards 225

10.2.11 USDA/NOP 226

10.2.12 NSF International 226

10.2.13 NPA (Natural Products Association) 227

10.2.14 Standards in Other Regions 228

10.2.15 Comparison of the Key Requirements of the Ecocert Greenlife, COSMOS and Natrue Standards 229

10.3 Fair Trade Labels 229

10.4 Other Eco-Labels 231

10.4.1 Eco Flower – The European Eco-Label 231

10.4.2 Nordic Swan – The Nordic Ecolabel 232

10.4.3 Others in Europe 232

10.4.4 Green Seal USA 232

10.4.5 USDA Biobased Product Certification 233

10.4.6 Carbon Labels 233

10.5 Other Sustainability Standards and Indices 234

10.5.1 ISO Standards 14000 and 26000 234

10.5.2 SA8000 235

10.5.3 Other Standards 236

10.5.4 Sustainable Indexes 236

References 237

11 Understanding Green Marketing 239
Darrin C. Duber-Smith and Mason W. Rubin

11.1 The “Why” of Sustainability 240

11.2 The Green Consumer 242

11.3 Best Green Practices 244

11.4 Communication versus Reality: The Many Shades of Green 245

11.4.1 Red Marketer 245

11.4.2 Green Panderer 247

11.4.3 Green Buffeteer 248

11.4.4 Light Green Marketer 249

11.4.5 Natural Green Marketer 250

11.4.6 Deep Green Marketer 251

11.5 Greener Than Thou 252

References 253

12 Marketing Case Studies 255

Part 1: Yes ToTM Inc. 255
Ido Leffler

12.1.1 The Background 255

12.1.2 The Growth Path 256

12.1.3 Marketing Strategy 259

12.1.4 Product Positioning 262

12.1.5 Distribution Growth and Brand Extensions 263

12.1.6 Future Plans 264

Part 2: Korres Natural Products 265

12.2.1 George Korres From Herbal Remedies to Natural Products 265

12.2.2 The Challenge 267

12.2.3 Vision and Strategy 268

12.2.4 Target Audience 270

12.2.5 The Portfolio at a Glance 270

12.2.6 Marketing and Positioning 271

12.2.7 Beauty Made Honest 272

12.2.8 Sustainability 273

12.2.9 Global Presence 274

12.2.10 A Closer Look 276

12.2.11 A Success Case Study Starring . . . the Product 277

12.2.12 The Future 277

Part 3: Whole Foods Market 278
Jody Villecco

12.3.1 Introduction 278

12.3.2 Body Care Quality Standards 279

12.3.3 Whole Body Responsible Packaging 285

12.3.4 Organic Body Care Labeling Standards 286

12.3.5 Industry Recognition 287

12.3.6 Conclusion 287

References 288

13 Targeting the Green Consumer 289
Kathy Sheehan

13.1 Introduction 289

13.2 United States 292

13.3 Western Europe 295

13.4 China 296

13.5 Latin America 298

13.6 Conclusions 300

14 Future Outlook 301
Amarjit Sahota

14.1 Preamble 301

14.2 Sustainability 301

14.3 Social Dimensions 303

14.4 Green Cosmetics 305

14.5 Responsible Consumption 308

14.6 Role of Government and Legislation 310

14.7 Benchmarking of Cosmetic Companies 311

14.8 Conclusions 312

References 314

Index

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Editor

Amarjit Sahota

President, Organic Monitor, London, UK

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“This publication from Wiley collects a wide number of articles focusing on sustainability in cosmetics, 14 chapters, which represents a road map in this so sensitive issue. The authors are key experts from organizations involved in sustainability in the cosmetics industry issue with a relevant long experience.”  (H & PC Today, March/April 2014)

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Seminars, Workshops and Summits Find out about seminars, workshops and summits that the editor of our book Sustainability: How the Cosmetics Industry is Greening Up, Amarjit Sahota,is organizing worldwide.
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