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Environmental Physiology of Livestock

R. J. Collier (Editor), J. L. Collier (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-94907-7
300 pages
November 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Environmental Physiology of Livestock (1119949076) cover image
Environmental stress is one of the most significant factors affecting livestock performance and health, and it is only expected to increase with effects of global warming. Environmental Physiology of Livestock brings together the latest research on environmental physiology, summarizing progress in the field and providing directions for future research. Recent developments in estimating heat stress loads are discussed, as well as key studies in metabolism, reproduction, and genetic expressions.

Environmental Physiology of Livestock begins with a survey of current heat indexing tools, highlighting recent discoveries in animal physiology, changes in productivity levels, and new technologies available to better estimate stress response. Using this synopsis as a point of orientation, later chapters hone in on major effects of heat stress, including changing metabolic pathways and nutrient requirements, endocrine regulation of acclimation to environmental stress, and reduced reproductive performance. The text concludes with a thorough discussion of environmental effects on gene expressions, providing important insight for future breeding practices.

Environmental Physiology of Livestock is a globally contributed volume and a key resource for animal science researchers, geneticists, and breeders.

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Contributors ix

Foreword xi

1 From Heat Tolerance to Heat Stress Relief: An Evolution of Notions in Animal Farming 1
Amiel Berman

2 Physiological Basics of Temperature Regulation in Domestic Animals 17
Donald E. Spiers

3 Heat Stress and Evaporative Cooling 35
Kifle G. Gebremedhin

4 Regulation of Acclimation to Environmental Stress 49
Kajal Sankar Roy and Robert J. Collier

5 Environment and Animal Well-Being 65
S. D. Eicher

6 Effects of Environment on Metabolism 81
Lance Baumgard and Robert P. Rhoads

7 Impact of Hot Environment on Nutrient Requirements 101
Umberto Bernabucci

8 Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs 129
Ted H. Elsasser, Cong-Jun Li, Jessica Shaffer, and Robert J. Collier

9 Effect of Environment on Immune Functions 165
Nicola Lacetera

10 Strategies for Improvement of Thermal and Reproductive Responses under Heat Stress 181
David Wolfenson and William W. Thatcher

11 Prospects for Improving Fertility during Heat Stress by Increasing Embryonic Resistance to Elevated Temperature 199
Peter J. Hansen

12 Environmental Heat Stress Impairs Placental Function, Fetal Growth and Development, and Postnatal Performance in Livestock 209
Dustin T. Yates, Xiaochuan Chen, and Sean W. Limesand

13 Effects of Photoperiod on Domestic Animals 229
Geoffrey E. Dahl and Izabella M. Thompson

14 Rethinking Heat Index Tools for Livestock 243
J. B. Gaughan, T. L. Mader, and K. G. Gebremedhin

15 Strategies to Reduce the Impact of Heat and Cold Stress in Dairy Cattle Facilities 267
John R. Smith and J. P. Harner, III

16 Genotype by Environment Interactions in Commercial Populations 289
Ignacy Misztal and Peter Lovendahl

17 Responses of Poultry to Environmental Challenges 309
J. Brake and S. Yahav

Index 337

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