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Solid Waste Technology and Management

ISBN: 978-1-119-95502-3
1052 pages
August 2011
Solid Waste Technology and Management (1119955025) cover image
The collection, transportation and subsequent processing of waste materials is a vast field of study which incorporates technical, social, legal, economic, environmental and regulatory issues. Common waste management practices include landfilling, biological treatment, incineration, and recycling – all boasting advantages and disadvantages. Waste management has changed significantly over the past ten years, with an increased focus on integrated waste management and life-cycle assessment (LCA), with the aim of reducing the reliance on landfill with its obvious environmental concerns in favour of greener solutions. With contributions from more than seventy internationally known experts presented in two volumes and backed by the International Waste Working Group and the International Solid Waste Association, detailed chapters cover:
  • Waste Generation and Characterization
  • Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Management Systems
  • Waste Minimization
  • Material Recycling
  • Waste Collection
  • Mechanical Treatment and Separation
  • Thermal Treatment
  • Biological Treatment
  • Landfilling
  • Special and Hazardous Waste

Solid Waste Technology & Management is a balanced and detailed account of all aspects of municipal solid waste management, treatment and disposal, covering both engineering and management aspects with an overarching emphasis on the life-cycle approach.

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Preface xi

List of Contributors xiii

VOLUME 1

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction toWaste Management 3
Thomas H. Christensen

1.2 Introduction toWaste Engineering 17
Thomas H. Christensen

1.3 Introduction toWaste Economics 29
Hanna Merrild and Thomas H. Christensen

1.4 Introduction toWaste Legislation and Regulation 52
Peter Pagh and Henrik Wejdling

2 WASTE GENERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

2.1 Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods 63
Anders Lagerkvist, Holger Ecke and Thomas H. Christensen

2.2 Residential Waste 85
Thomas H. Christensen, Thilde Fruergaard and Yasushi Matsufuji

2.3 Commercial and InstitutionalWaste 97
Thomas H. Christensen and Thilde Fruergaard

2.4 IndustrialWaste 100
Thomas H. Christensen

2.5 Construction and DemolitionWaste 104
Thomas H. Christensen and Lizzi Andersen

3 LCA OF WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

3.1 LCA inWaste Management: Introduction to Principle and Method 113
Michael Hauschild and Morton A. Barlaz

3.2 Application of LCA inWaste Management 137
Anna Bj¨orklund, G¨oran Finnveden and Liselott Roth

3.3 LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios 161
Thomas H. Christensen, Federico Simion, Davide Tonini and Jacob Møller

4 WASTE MINIMIZATION

4.1 Waste Prevention and Minimization: Concepts, Strategies and Means 183
Stefan Salhofer, Nicole Unger and Bernd Bilitewski

4.2 Waste Prevention and Minimization: Cases 193
Stefan Salhofer and Nicole Unger

5 MATERIAL RECYCLING

5.1 Recycling of Paper and Cardboard 203
Thomas H. Christensen and Anders Damgaard

5.2 Recycling of Glass 211
Thomas H. Christensen and Anders Damgaard

5.3 Recycling of Plastic 220
Thomas H. Christensen and Thilde Fruergaard

5.4 Recycling of Metals 234
Anders Damgaard and Thomas H. Christensen

5.5 Recycling of Construction and DemolitionWaste 243
Thomas H. Christensen and Harpa Birgisdottir

6 COLLECTION

6.1 Waste Collection: Equipment and Vehicles 253
Per Nilsson

6.2 Waste Collection: Systems and Organization 277
Per Nilsson and Thomas H. Christensen

6.3 Source Segregation and Collection of Source-Segregated Waste 296
Thomas H. Christensen and Yasushi Matsufuji

6.4 Waste Transfer Stations 311
Thomas H. Christensen

7 MECHANICAL TREATMENT

7.1 Mechanical Treatment: Unit Processes 321
Bernd Bilitewski

7.2 Mechanical Treatment: Material Recovery Facilities 349
Thomas H. Christensen and Bernd Bilitewski

8 THERMAL TREATMENT

8.1 Incineration: Process and Technology 365
Tore Hulgaard and J¨urgen Vehlow

8.2 Incineration: Flue Gas Cleaning and Emissions 393
J¨urgen Vehlow and Søren Dalager

8.3 Incineration: Mass Balances 421
Søren Dalager and Dieter O. Reimann

8.4 Incineration: Solid Residues 430
Ole Hjelmar, Annette Johnson and Rob Comans

8.5 Incineration: Utilization of Residue in Construction 463
Maria Arm, T. Taylor Eighmy and Thomas H. Christensen

8.6 Incineration: Co-combustion 476
Helmut Rechberger

8.7 Incineration: RDF and SRF – Solid Fuels fromWaste 486
Susanne Rotter

8.8 Pyrolysis and Gasification 502
Thomas Astrup and Bernd Bilitewski

VOLUME 2

9 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

9.1 Composting: Process 515
Edward Stentiford and Marco de Bertoldi

9.2 Composting: Technology 533
Uta Krogmann, Ina K¨orner and Luis F. Diaz

9.3 Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality 569
Alessio Boldrin, Thomas H. Christensen, Ina K¨orner and Uta Krogmann

9.4 Anaerobic Digestion: Process 583
Irini Angelidaki and Damien John Batstone

9.5 Anaerobic Digestion: Technology 601
Jes la Cour Jansen

9.6 Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products 618
Jacob Møller, Thomas H. Christensen and Jes la Cour Jansen

9.7 Mechanical Biological Treatment 628
Bernd Bilitewski, Christiane Oros and Thomas H. Christensen

9.8 Emerging Biological Technologies: Biofuels and Biochemicals 639
Dimitar Karakashev and Irini Angelidaki

9.9 Use of Compost in Horticulture and Landscaping 651
Morten Carlsbæk

9.10 Utilization of Biologically Treated Organic Waste on Land 665
Peter E. Holm, Lars Stoumann Jensen and Michael J. McLaughlin

10 LANDFILLING

10.1 Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges 685
Thomas H. Christensen, Heijo Scharff and Ole Hjelmar

10.2 Landfilling: Environmental Issues 695
Thomas H. Christensen, Simone Manfredi and Peter Kjeldsen

10.3 Landfilling: Hydrology 709
Peter Kjeldsen and Richard Beaven

10.4 Landfilling: Geotechnology 734
R. Kerry Rowe and Jamie F. VanGulck

10.5 Landfilling: Mineral Waste Landfills 755
Ole Hjelmar and Hans A. van der Sloot

10.6 Landfilling: Reactor Landfills 772
Thomas H. Christensen, Simone Manfredi and Keith Knox

10.7 Landfilling: MBP Waste Landfills 788
Rainer Stegmann

10.8 Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection 800
Thomas H. Christensen, Simone Manfredi, Peter Kjeldsen and Robert B. Wallace

10.9 Landfill Top Covers 830
Charlotte Scheutz and Peter Kjeldsen

10.10 Landfilling: Gas Production, Extraction and Utilization 841
Hans Willumsen and Morton A. Barlaz

10.11 Landfilling: Leachate Treatment 858
Hans-J¨urgen Ehrig and Howard Robinson

10.12 Landfilling: Planning, Siting and Design 898
Roberto Raga, Raffaello Cossu and Anders Lagerkvist

10.13 Landfilling: Operation and Monitoring 914
Nicole D. Berge, Eyad S. Batarseh and Debra R. Reinhart

10.14 Landfill Closure, Aftercare and Final Use 932
Heijo Scharff

11 SPECIAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE

11.1 Healthcare RiskWaste 951
Ole Vennicke Christiansen and Peder Bisbjerg

11.2 Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment 960
Marianne Bigum and Thomas H Christensen

11.3 Preservative Treated Wood 971
Ina K¨orner, Jenna Jambeck, Hans Leithoff and Volker Lenz

11.4 Hazardous Waste 982
Joan Maj Nielsen and Jørn Lauridsen

11.5 Other Special Waste 991
Line Brogaard and Thomas H. Christensen

Index 1001

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Thomas H. Christensen is Professor of Environmental Engineering at the Institute of Environment & Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
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  • A comprehensive introductory text covering a wide range of topics in a vast subject area.
  • Environmental protection is a ‘hot topic’ and this is a critical time in the development of environmental awareness. 
  • Covers both engineering and management aspects of the subject, emphasising the life-cycle analysis approach
  • International approach with a balanced and detailed account of all aspects of municipal solid waste management, treatment and disposal
  • Backed and contributed to by the International Waste Working Group and the International Solid Waste Association
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"Written by 40 internationally known experts, and carefully edited for consistency, the book is a balanced account of all aspects of municipal solid waste management, treatment and disposal, and covers both engineering and management aspects with an overarching emphasis on the life-cycle analysis approach." (MyCFO, 28 February 2011)
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