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Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials: First Principles and Concepts

Ali S. Ayoub (Editor), Lucian A. Lucia (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-96229-8
288 pages
October 2017
Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials: First Principles and Concepts (1119962293) cover image

Description

Covers the entire evolutionary spectrum of biomass, from its genetic modification and harvesting, to conversion technologies, life cycle analysis, and its value to the current global economy

This original textbook introduces readers to biomass—a renewable resource derived from forest, agriculture, and organic-based materials—which has attracted significant attention as a sustainable alternative to petrochemicals for large-scale production of fuels, materials, and chemicals. The current renaissance in the manipulation and uses of biomass has been so abrupt and focused, that very few educational textbooks actually cover these topics to any great extent. That’s why this interdisciplinary text is a welcome resource for those seeking a better understanding of this new discipline. It combines the underpinning science of biomass with technology applications and sustainability considerations to provide a broad focus to its readers. 

Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials: First Principles and Concepts consists of eight chapters on the following topics: fundamental biochemical & biotechnological principles; principles and methodologies controlling plant growth and silviculture; fundamental science and engineering considerations; critical considerations and strategies for harvesting; first principles of pretreatment; conversion technologies; characterization methods and techniques; and life cycle analysis. Each chapter includes a glossary of terms, two to three problem sets, and boxes to highlight novel discoveries and instruments. Chapters also offer questions for further consideration and suggestions for further reading. 

  • Developed from a successful USDA funded course, run by a partnership of three US universities: BioSUCEED - BioProducts Sustainability, a University Cooperative Center for Excellence in Education
  • Covers the entire evolutionary spectrum of biomass, from genetic modification to life cycle analysis
  • Presents the key chemistry, biology, technology, and sustainability aspects of biomaterials
  • Edited by a highly regarded academic team, with extensive research and teaching experience in the field

Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials: First Principles and Concepts is an ideal text for advanced academics and industry professionals involved with biomass and renewable resources, bioenergy, biorefining, biotechnology, materials science, sustainable chemistry, chemical engineering, crop science and technology, agriculture.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1: Fundamental Biochemical and Biotechnological Principles of Biomass Growth & Use
Dr. Manfred Kircher

1.1 Comparison of fossil - versus bio-based raw materials 

1.2 The nature of bio-based raw materials

1.3 General considerations surrounding bio-based raw materials

1.4 Research advances made recently

1.5 Prominent scientists working in this arena

1.6 SUMMARY

1.7 STUDY PROBLEMS

References

Chapter 2: Fundamental Science and Applications for Biomaterials
Ali Ayoub, Lucian Lucia

1. Philosophical Statement

2. Introduction

3. What are the biopolymers that encompass the structure and function of lignocellulosics

4. The chemical reactivity’s of the cellulose, heteropolysaccharides, and lignin

5. Composite as a unique application for sustainable materials

6. Question for further consideration

References

Chapter 3:  Conversion technologies
Maurycy Daroch

1. Energy scenario at global level

2. Biomass

3. Biomass conversion methods

4. Metrics to assist the transition towards sustainable production of bioenergy and biomaterials

5. Summary

Key references

References

Chapter 4: Characterization Methods and Techniques
Noppadon Sathitsuksano, Scott Renneckar

Philosophy Statement

Glossary

1. Understanding characteristics of biomass

2. Taking precautions prior to setting up experiments for biomass analysis

3. Classifying biomass sizes for proper analysis

4. Moisture content of biomass and importance of drying samples prior to analysis

5. When the carbon is burned

6. Structural Cell Wall Analysis, what to look for

7. Hydrolyzing biomass and determining its composition

8. Determining Cell Wall Structures through Spectroscopy and Scattering

9. Examining the Size of the Biopolymers: Molecular Weight Analysis

10. Intricacies of Understanding Lignin Structure

11. Questions for further consideration

References

Chapter 5: Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment and Decision Making Applied to Forest Biomaterials
Jesse Daystar, Richard Venditti

1.  Introduction

2. LCA components overview

3. Life Cycle Assessment Steps

4. LCA Tools for Forest Biomaterials

References

Chapter 6: First Principles of Pretreatment and Cracking Biomass to Fundamental Building Blocks
Amir Daraei Garmakhany and Somayeh Sheykhnazari

1. Introduction

2. What difference should be considered between wood and agricultural biomass?

3. Define pretreatment

4. Steps of production of cellulosic ethanol

5. What are the key considerations for making a successful pretreatment technology?

6. What are the general methods used in pretreatment?

7. What is currently being done and what are the advances?

8. Summary

References

Chapter 7: Green Route to Prepare Renewable Polyesters From Monomers: Enzymatic polymerization
Toufik Naolou

1. Philosophic statement

2. Introduction

3. Lipase-catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerizations of cyclic monomeric esters (lactones and lactides)

4. Lipase-catalyzed polycondensation

5. Conclusions and remarks

6. Questions for further consideration:

References

Chapter 8: Oil-Based and Bio-derived Thermoplastic Polymer Blends and Composites
Alessia Quitadamo, Valerie Massardier and Marco Valente

1. Introduction

2.  Oil-based and bio-derived thermoplastic polymer blends

2.1. Comparison between fuel-based and bio-derived thermoplastic polymers

2.2. Thermoplastics blends

3.  Thermoplastic composites with natural fillers

3.1. Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs)

3.2. Waste paper as filler in thermoplastic composites

4. Conclusion

5. Questions for further considerations

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Author Information

Ali Ayoub, PhD is an internationally recognized expert in the biopolymer science and engineering field and has successfully developed groundbreaking inventions in areas relevant to polymeric materials and the biorefinery concept. He is a senior scientist in the chemical industry, as well as an adjunct professor and associate graduate faculty member at North Carolina State University. He received his B.S in Physical-Chemistry from the National Chemical Engineering School (France) and PhD in Materials Chemistry from the Institute of Molecular Chemistry (France). He is associated with the United States Department of Interior and symposiums related to natural polymers within the American Chemical Society. He received many academic awards from Japan, France and USA for his research in the advances in understanding the starch macromolecules and its industrial applications.

Lucian A. Lucia, PhD is an Associate Professor in Forest Biomaterials and Chemistry, North Carolina State University and an honorary Professor of Green Chemistry at Qilu University of Technology (China). He was the Principle Investigator for the acclaimed BioSUCCEED educational/research framework (BioProducts Sustainability, a University Cooperative Center for Excellence in Education). He has been elected Fellow to a number of prestigious organizations and is co-Founder and co-Editor of the international journal BioResources.

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