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Predictive Control of Power Converters and Electrical Drives

ISBN: 978-1-119-96398-1
246 pages
April 2012, Wiley-IEEE Press
Predictive Control of Power Converters and Electrical Drives (1119963982) cover image

Description

Describes the general principles and current research into Model Predictive Control (MPC);  the most up-to-date control method for power converters and drives

The book starts with an introduction to the subject before the first chapter on classical control methods for power converters and drives. This covers classical converter control methods and classical electrical drives control methods. The next chapter on Model predictive control first looks at predictive control methods for power converters and drives and presents the basic principles of MPC. It then looks at MPC for power electronics and drives. The third chapter is on predictive control applied to power converters. It discusses: control of a three-phase inverter; control of a neutral point clamped inverter; control of an active front end rectifier, and; control of a matrix converter. In the middle of the book there is Chapter four - Predictive control applied to motor drives. This section analyses predictive torque control of industrial machines and predictive control of permanent magnet synchronous motors. Design and implementation issues of model predictive control is the subject of the final chapter. The following topics are described in detail: cost function selection; weighting factors design; delay compensation; effect of model errors, and prediction of future references. While there are hundreds of books teaching control of electrical energy using pulse width modulation, this will be the very first book published in this new topic.

  • Unique in presenting a completely new theoretic solution to control electric power in a simple way
  • Discusses the application of predictive control in motor drives, with several examples and case studies
  • Matlab is included on a complementary website so the reader can run their own simulations
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Table of Contents

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Part One INTRODUCTION

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Applications of Power Converters and Drives 3

1.2 Types of Power Converters 5

1.2.1 Generic Drive System 5

1.2.2 Classification of Power Converters 5

1.3 Control of Power Converters and Drives 7

1.3.1 Power Converter Control in the Past 7

1.3.2 Power Converter Control Today 10

1.3.3 Control Requirements and Challenges 11

1.3.4 Digital Control Platforms 12

1.4 Why Predictive Control is Particularly Suited for Power Electronics 13

1.5 Contents of this Book 15

References 16

2 Classical Control Methods for Power Converters and Drives 17

2.1 Classical Current Control Methods 17

2.1.1 Hysteresis Current Control 18

2.1.2 Linear Control with Pulse Width Modulation or Space Vector Modulation 20

2.2 Classical Electrical Drive Control Methods 24

2.2.1 Field Oriented Control 24

2.2.2 Direct Torque Control 26

2.3 Summary 30

References 30

3 Model Predictive Control 31

3.1 Predictive Control Methods for Power Converters and Drives 31

3.2 Basic Principles of Model Predictive Control 32

3.3 Model Predictive Control for Power Electronics and Drives 34

3.3.1 Controller Design 35

3.3.2 Implementation 37

3.3.3 General Control Scheme 38

3.4 Summary 38

References 38

Part Two MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL APPLIED TO POWER CONVERTERS

4 Predictive Control of a Three-Phase Inverter 43

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 Predictive Current Control 43

4.3 Cost Function 44

4.4 Converter Model 44

4.5 Load Model 48

4.6 Discrete-Time Model for Prediction 49

4.7 Working Principle 50

4.8 Implementation of the Predictive Control Strategy 50

4.9 Comparison to a Classical Control Scheme 59

4.10 Summary 63

References 63

5 Predictive Control of a Three-Phase Neutral-Point Clamped Inverter 65

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 System Model 66

5.3 Linear Current Control Method with Pulse Width Modulation 70

5.4 Predictive Current Control Method 70

5.5 Implementation 72

5.5.1 Reduction of the Switching Frequency 74

5.5.2 Capacitor Voltage Balance 77

5.6 Summary 78

References 79

6 Control of an Active Front-End Rectifier 81

6.1 Introduction 81

6.2 Rectifier Model 84

6.2.1 Space Vector Model 84

6.2.2 Discrete-Time Model 85

6.3 Predictive Current Control in an Active Front-End 86

6.3.1 Cost Function 86

6.4 Predictive Power Control 89

6.4.1 Cost Function and Control Scheme 89

6.5 Predictive Control of an AC–DC–AC Converter 92

6.5.1 Control of the Inverter Side 92

6.5.2 Control of the Rectifier Side 94

6.5.3 Control Scheme 94

6.6 Summary 96

References 97

7 Control of a Matrix Converter 99

7.1 Introduction 99

7.2 System Model 99

7.2.1 Matrix Converter Model 99

7.2.2 Working Principle of the Matrix Converter 101

7.2.3 Commutation of the Switches 102

7.3 Classical Control: The Venturini Method 103

7.4 Predictive Current Control of the Matrix Converter 104

7.4.1 Model of the Matrix Converter for Predictive Control 104

7.4.2 Output Current Control 107

7.4.3 Output Current Control with Minimization of the Input Reactive Power 108

7.4.4 Input Reactive Power Control 113

7.5 Summary 113

References 114

Part Three MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL APPLIED TO MOTOR DRIVES

8 Predictive Control of Induction Machines 117

8.1 Introduction 117

8.2 Dynamic Model of an Induction Machine 118

8.3 Field Oriented Control of an Induction Machine Fed by a Matrix Converter Using Predictive Current Control 121

8.3.1 Control Scheme 121

8.4 Predictive Torque Control of an Induction Machine Fed by a Voltage Source Inverter 123

8.5 Predictive Torque Control of an Induction Machine Fed by a Matrix Converter 128

8.5.1 Torque and Flux Control 128

8.5.2 Torque and Flux Control with Minimization of the Input Reactive Power 129

8.6 Summary 130

References 131

9 Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors 133

9.1 Introduction 133

9.2 Machine Equations 133

9.3 Field Oriented Control Using Predictive Current Control 135

9.3.1 Discrete-Time Model 136

9.3.2 Control Scheme 136

9.4 Predictive Speed Control 139

9.4.1 Discrete-Time Model 139

9.4.2 Control Scheme 140

9.4.3 Rotor Speed Estimation 141

9.5 Summary 142

References 143

Part Four DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL

10 Cost Function Selection 147

10.1 Introduction 147

10.2 Reference Following 147

10.2.1 Some Examples 148

10.3 Actuation Constraints 148

10.3.1 Minimization of the Switching Frequency 150

10.3.2 Minimization of the Switching Losses 152

10.4 Hard Constraints 155

10.5 Spectral Content 157

10.6 Summary 161

References 161

11 Weighting Factor Design 163

11.1 Introduction 163

11.2 Cost Function Classification 164

11.2.1 Cost Functions without Weighting Factors 164

11.2.2 Cost Functions with Secondary Terms 164

11.2.3 Cost Functions with Equally Important Terms 165

11.3 Weighting Factors Adjustment 166

11.3.1 For Cost Functions with Secondary Terms 166

11.3.2 For Cost Functions with Equally Important Terms 167

11.4 Examples 168

11.4.1 Switching Frequency Reduction 168

11.4.2 Common-Mode Voltage Reduction 168

11.4.3 Input Reactive Power Reduction 170

11.4.4 Torque and Flux Control 170

11.4.5 Capacitor Voltage Balancing 174

11.5 Summary 175

References 176

12 Delay Compensation 177

12.1 Introduction 177

12.2 Effect of Delay due to Calculation Time 177

12.3 Delay Compensation Method 180

12.4 Prediction of Future References 181

12.4.1 Calculation of Future References Using Extrapolation 185

12.4.2 Calculation of Future References Using Vector Angle Compensation 185

12.5 Summary 188

References 188

13 Effect of Model Parameter Errors 191

13.1 Introduction 191

13.2 Three-Phase Inverter 191

13.3 Proportional–Integral Controllers with Pulse Width Modulation 192

13.3.1 Control Scheme 192

13.3.2 Effect of Model Parameter Errors 193

13.4 Deadbeat Control with Pulse Width Modulation 194

13.4.1 Control Scheme 194

13.4.2 Effect of Model Parameter Errors 195

13.5 Model Predictive Control 195

13.5.1 Effect of Load Parameter Variation 196

13.6 Comparative Results 197

13.7 Summary 201

References 201

Appendix A Predictive Control Simulation – Three-Phase Inverter 203

A.1 Predictive Current Control of a Three-Phase Inverter 203

A.1.1 Definition of Simulation Parameters 207

A.1.2 MATLAB® Code for Predictive Current Control 208

Appendix B Predictive Control Simulation – Torque Control of an Induction Machine Fed by a Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter 211

B.1 Definition of Predictive Torque Control Simulation Parameters 213

B.2 MATLAB® Code for the Predictive Torque Control Simulation 215

Appendix C Predictive Control Simulation – Matrix Converter 219

C.1 Predictive Current Control of a Direct Matrix Converter 219

C.1.1 Definition of Simulation Parameters 221

C.1.2 MATLAB® Code for Predictive Current Control with Instantaneous Reactive Power Minimization 222

Index 227

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Author Information

Professor José Rodríguez, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Chile Professor Rodriguez has been at the Department of Electronics Engineering, University Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, since 1977. From 2001 to 2004 he was Director of the Department of Electronics Engineering of the same university. In 1996 he was responsible for the Mining Division of Siemens Corporation, Santiago, Chile. He has extensive consulting experience in the mining industry, particularly in the application of large drives.Professor Rodriguez’ research group was recoginized as one of the two Centers of Excellence in Engineering in Chile from 2005 to 2008. He has directed more than 40 R&D projects in the field of industrial electronics, and his main research interests include multilevel inverters, new converter topologies, control of power converters and adjustable-speed drives. He has co-authored more than 250 journal and conference papers and contributed one book chapter. Since 2002 he has been active associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics and IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. He received the Best Paper Award from the former in 2007.

Patricio Cortés, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Chile Dr Cortes joined the Electronics Engineering Department UTFSM in 2003, where he is currently Research Associate. His main research interests include power electronics, adjustable speed drives and predictive control. He has authored over 30 journal and conference papers, most of them in the area of predictive control in power electronics. Dr Cortes received the Best Paper Award from the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics in 2007.

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