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Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, 2nd Edition

John C. Vickerman (Editor), Ian Gilmore (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-96551-0
686 pages
August 2011
Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, 2nd Edition (1119965519) cover image
This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis.

Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they can overcome problems within this area of study.


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List of Contributors.


1 Introduction (John C. Vickerman).

1.1 How do we Define the Surface?

1.2 How Many Atoms in a Surface?

1.3 Information Required.

1.4 Surface Sensitivity.

1.5 Radiation Effects – Surface Damage.

1.6 Complexity of the Data.

2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (Hans Jörg Mathieu).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Principle of the Auger Process.

2.3 Instrumentation.

2.4 Quantitative Analysis.

2.5 Depth Profile Analysis.

2.6 Summary.



3 Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (Buddy D. Ratner and David G. Castner).

3.1 Overview.

3.2 X-ray Interaction with Matter, the Photoelectron Effect and Photoemission from Solids.

3.3 Binding Energy and the Chemical Shift.

3.4 Inelastic Mean Free Path and Sampling Depth.

3.5 Quantification.

3.6 Spectral Features.

3.7 Instrumentation.

3.8 Spectral Quality.

3.9 Depth Profiling.

3.10 X–Y Mapping and Imaging.

3.11 Chemical Derivatization.

3.12 Valence Band.

3.13 Perspectives.

3.14 Conclusions.




4 Molecular Surface Mass Spectrometry by SIMS (John C. Vickerman).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Basic Concepts.

4.3 Experimental Requirements.

4.4 Secondary Ion Formation.

4.5 Modes of Analysis.

4.6 Ionization of the Sputtered Neutrals.

4.7 Ambient Methods of Desorption Mass Spectrometry.



5 Dynamic SIMS (David McPhail and Mark Dowsett).

5.1 Fundamentals and Attributes.

5.2 Areas and Methods of Application.

5.3 Quantification of Data.

5.4 Novel Approaches.

5.5 Instrumentation.

5.6 Conclusions.



6 Low-Energy Ion Scattering and Rutherford Backscattering (Edmund Taglauer).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Physical Basis.

6.3 Rutherford Backscattering.

6.4 Low-Energy Ion Scattering.




Key Facts.

7 Vibrational Spectroscopy from Surfaces (Martyn E. Pemble and Peter Gardner).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Infrared Spectroscopy from Surfaces.

7.3 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS).

7.4 The Group Theory of Surface Vibrations.

7.5 Laser Raman Spectroscopy from Surfaces.

7.6 Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS).

7.7 Sum-Frequency Generation Methods.



8 Surface Structure Determination by Interference Techniques (Christopher A. Lucas).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Electron Diffraction Techniques.

8.3 X-ray Techniques.

8.4 Photoelectron Diffraction.


9 Scanning Probe Microscopy (Graham J. Leggett).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy.

9.3 Atomic Force Microscopy.

9.4 Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy.

9.5 Other Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques.

9.6 Lithography Using Probe Microscopy Methods.

9.7 Conclusions.



10 The Application of Multivariate Data Analysis Techniques in

Surface Analysis (Joanna L.S. Lee and Ian S. Gilmore).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Basic Concepts.

10.3 Factor Analysis for Identification.

10.4 Regression Methods for Quantification.

10.5 Methods for Classification.

10.6 Summary and Conclusion.




Appendix 1 Vacuum Technology for Applied Surface Science (Rod Wilson).

A1.1 Introduction: Gases and Vapours.

A1.2 The Pressure Regions of Vacuum Technology and their Characteristics.

A1.3 Production of a Vacuum.

A1.4 Measurement of Low Pressures.



Appendix 2 Units, Fundamental Physical Constants and Conversions.

A2.1 Base Units of the SI.

A2.2 Fundamental Physical Constants.

A2.3 Other Units and Conversions to SI.



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  • Completely new chapters on 'Dynamic SIMS' and 'The Application of Multivariate Data Analysis Techniques in Surface Analysis'
  • All other chapters extensively revised. Many now include illustrative applications and developments from the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology
  • Addition of Q&As to assist students in this edition
  • Increased page format with more user-friendly layout and use of colour illustrations, as appropriate
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  • Q & A  to assist students
  • Key facts throughout the chapters to highlight fundamental theory, practical tips, etc.
  • PowerPoint files of all figures for Instructors on the HE website
  • Printed in 4-colour, with 2nd colour headings
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