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Manufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition

Ramesh C. Chandan (Editor), Arun Kilara (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-96708-8
496 pages
March 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Manufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition (1119967082) cover image

Melding the hands-on experience of producing yogurt and fermented milks over four decades with the latest in scientific research in the dairy industry, editor Chandan and his associate editors have assembled experts worldwide to writeManufacturing Yogurt and Fermented Milks, 2nd Edition. This one-of-a-kind resource gives a complete description of the manufacturing stages of yogurt and fermented milks from the receipt of raw materials to the packaging of the products.

 

Information is conveniently grouped under four categories:

· Basic background—History and consumption trends, milk composition characteristics, dairy processing principles, regulatory requirements, laboratory analysis, starter cultures, packaging, and more

· Yogurt manufacture—Fruit preparations and flavoring materials, ingredients, processing principles, manufacture of various yogurt types, plant cleaning and sanitizing, quality assurance, and sensory analysis

· Manufacture of fermented milks—Procedure, packaging and other details for more than ten different types of products

· Health benefits—Functional foods, probiotics, disease prevention, and the health attributes of yogurt and fermented milks

All manufacturing processes are supported by sound scientific, technological, and engineering principles. 

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List of contributors xi

Preface to the second edition xiii

Preface to the first edition xv

PART I BASIC BACKGROUND 1

1 History and consumption trends 3
Ramesh C. Chandan

1.1 Overview of the world dairy industry 3

1.2 Milk production in the USA 3

1.3 Production of dairy foods in the USA 4

1.4 Fermented/cultured dairy products 7

1.5 Occurrence and consumption of fermented milks in various regions 8

1.6 Major commercial fermented milks 11

1.7 Scandinavian fermented milks 15

1.8 Russian and Eastern European fermented milks 16

1.9 Middle Eastern fermented milks 16

1.10 South Asian fermented milks 17

2 Milk composition, physical and processing characteristics 21
Guillaume Brisson and Harjinder Singh

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Milk composition 21

2.3 Milk components and processing characteristics 23

2.4 Physicochemical properties of milk 37

3 Regulatory requirements for milk production, transportation and processing 49
Cary P. Frye

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 From farm to factory 49

3.3 History of milk safety 50

3.4 United States Public Health Grade "A" Milk Safety Program 50

3.5 Inspection of milk safety 51

3.6 Farm requirements 52

3.7 Milk transportation 53

3.8 Processing plant 54

3.9 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System 58

3.10 Standards and regulations 60

3.11 Milk pricing—US Federal Milk Marketing Orders 65

4 Regulations for product standards and labeling 71
Cary P. Frye

4.1 US Code of Federal Regulations 71

4.2 US product standards of identity 71

4.3 Fermented milk and milk products 72

4.4 Stayed provisions 77

4.5 Frozen yogurt 79

4.6 Food additives and packaging 79

4.7 Labeling 80

4.8 Codex Standards and definitions for fermented-milk products 89

5 Principles of dairy processing 95
Arun Kilara

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 From farm to factory 95

5.3 Storage of raw milk 96

5.4 Overview of processing equipment in a dairy plant 99

5.5 Centrifugal operations 105

5.6 Thermal-processing systems 107

5.7 Homogenization 110

5.8 Membrane technology 111

5.9 Conclusion 113

6 Starter cultures for yogurt and fermented milks 115
Ebenezer R. Vedamuthu

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Starter functions 118

6.3 Factors affecting starter performance 120

6.4 Microorganisms used in starters for cultured dairy products 127

6.5 Genus Lactococcus 130

6.6 Comments on Cit + Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 136

6.7 Genus Leuconostoc 136

6.8 Genus Streptococcus 138

6.9 Genus Lactobacillus 140

6.10 Genus Bifidobacterium 142

6.11 Starter-culture production 142

6.12 Miscellaneous starters 146

6.13 Literature 146

7 Fermented dairy packaging materials 149
Aaron L. Brody

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Fundamentals of packaging 150

7.3 Packaging materials 151

7.4 Interactions between product and packaging 160

7.5 The package in product distribution 162

7.6 Graphic design and assessment 163

7.7 Economics of packaging 164

7.8 Regulation 165

7.9 Packaging and the environment 166

7.10 Packaging for yogurt and fermented dairy products 168

7.11 Future trends 174

8 Milk and milk-based ingredients 177
Isabelle Sodini and Phillip S. Tong

8.1 Introduction 177

8.2 Composition and specifications 177

8.3 Performances in yogurt formulation 178

8.4 Conclusion 189

PART II MANUFACTURE OF YOGURT 193

9 Yogurt: fruit preparations and fl avoring materials 195
Kevin O'Rell and Ramesh C. Chandan

9.1 Introduction 195

9.2 Fruit as a raw material for yogurt preparations 196

9.3 Processing of fruit for use in yogurt fruit preparations 197

9.4 Formulation of fruit preparations 200

9.5 Processing yogurt fruit preparations 209

9.6 Packaging of fruit preparations 213

9.7 Acknowledgment 215

10 Ingredients for yogurt manufacture 217
Ramesh C. Chandan and Kevin O'Rell

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Dairy ingredients and their origin 217

10.3 Sweeteners 224

10.4 Stabilizers 233

11 Principles of yogurt processing 239
Ramesh C. Chandan and Kevin O'Rell

11.1 Introduction 239

11.2 Mix preparation 239

11.3 Heat treatment 239

11.4 Homogenization 241

11.5 Yogurt starter 242

11.6 Changes in milk constituents during yogurt production 256

12 Manufacture of various types of yogurt 263
Kevin O'Rell and Ramesh C. Chandan

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 General manufacturing procedures applicable to all categories 263

12.3 Yogurt types, styles, subcategories and definitions 268

12.4 Market statistics on the yogurt trade 269

12.5 Manufacturing process for major yogurt categories 272

12.6 General manufacturing procedures for major types of yogurt 278

12.7 Post-culturing heat treatment 294

13 Greek-style yogurt and related products 297
Arun Kilara and Ramesh C. Chandan

13.1 Introduction 297

13.2 Greek-style yogurt 299

13.3 Chakka and shrikhand 305

13.4 Quarg and fromage frais 309

13.5 Mishti doi/dahi 315

14 Plant cleaning and sanitization 319
Dennis Bogart

14.1 Introduction 319

14.2 Cleaning 320

14.3 Sanitization 326

14.4 Phage control 328

14.5 A final thought 330

15 Yogurt plant: quality assurance 331
Kevin O'Rell and Ramesh C. Chandan

15.1 Introduction 331

15.2 Regulatory obligations 331

15.3 Quality-control programs 341

15.4 National Yogurt Association criteria for live- and active-culture yogurts 346

15.5 Specification program 348

16 Sensory analysis of yogurt 353
Yonca Karagül-Yüceer and MaryAnne Drake

16.1 Introduction 353

16.2 Sensory-analysis techniques 353

16.3 Sensory analysis of yogurt 359

16.4 Conclusions 364

PART III MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED MILKS 369

17 Cultured buttermilk 371
Charles H. White

17.1 Introduction 371

17.2 Milk supply 373

17.3 Processing of milk 374

17.4 Buttermilk starter culture 374

17.5 Breaking, cooling, bottling and distribution 376

18 Cultured/sour cream 381
Bill Born

18.1 Early history 381

18.2 Present standards 383

18.3 Sour-cream products 388

19 Other fermented and culture-containing milks 393
Ebenezer R. Vedamuthu

19.1 Introduction 393

19.2 Dahi 395

19.3 Kefir 399

19.4 Koumiss 402

19.5 Acidophilus milk and sweet acidophilus milk 403

19.6 Probiotic milks 406

19.7 Bulgarian milk 407

19.8 Skyr 407

19.9 Viili 408

19.10 Kurut 409

PART IV HEALTH BENEFITS 411

20 Functional foods and disease prevention 413
Ramesh C. Chandan and Nagendra P. Shah

20.1 Introduction 413

20.2 Functional foods 414

20.3 Bioactive dairy ingredients 415

20.4 Milk fat 421

20.5 Probiotics 422

20.6 Fortification 429

20.7 Physiologically active ingredients 429

21 Health benefits of yogurt and fermented milks 433
Nagendra P. Shah

21.1 Introduction 433

21.2 Yogurt and other fermented milks 435

21.3 Health benefits of fermented milks 438

22 Probiotics and fermented milks 451
Nagendra P. Shah

22.1 Introduction 451

22.2 Taxonomy of lactic-acid bacteria 451

22.3 Probiotic bacteria 452

22.4 Selection criteria for probiotics 453

22.5 Health benefits of Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria 459

22.6 Conclusion 465

References and further reading 466

Index 469

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Dr Ramesh C. Chandan, President, Global Technologies Inc, Coon Rapids, Minnesota. Dr Chandan is a consultant in dairy science and technology and has worked for more than 40 years in various food companies including Unilever, Land O'Lakes and General Mills, with special expertise in the manufacture of dairy products. He has served on the faculty of Michigan State University and has taught dairy technology courses for seven years. He has authored/edited six books on the subject of dairy food science. 

Dr Arun Kilara, Nutri+Food Business Consulting, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Dr Kilara has long established expertise in teaching and research in dairy food science at Penn State University and is very well known for his contribution in the area of dairy ingredients. He has edited two books on dairy food science.

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