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Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices

San Murugesan (Editor), G. R. Gangadharan (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-97005-7
432 pages
October 2012
Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices (1119970059) cover image

“Ultimately, this is a remarkable book, a practical testimonial, and a comprehensive bibliography rolled into one. It is a single, bright sword cut across the various murky green IT topics. And if my mistakes and lessons learned through the green IT journey are any indication, this book will be used every day by folks interested in greening IT.”
— Simon Y. Liu, Ph.D. & Ed.D., Editor-in-Chief, IT Professional Magazine, IEEE Computer Society, Director, U.S. National Agricultural Library

This book presents a holistic perspective on Green IT by discussing its various facets and showing how to strategically embrace it

Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices examines various ways of making computing and information systems greener – environmentally sustainable -, as well as several means of using Information Technology (IT) as a tool and an enabler to improve the environmental sustainability. The book focuses on both greening of IT and greening by IT – complimentary approaches to attaining environmental sustainability.   In a single volume, it   comprehensively covers several key aspects of Green IT - green technologies, design, standards, maturity models, strategies and adoption -, and presents a clear approach to greening IT encompassing green use, green disposal, green design, and green manufacturing. It also illustrates how to strategically apply green IT in practice in several areas.

Key Features:

  • Presents a comprehensive coverage of key topics of importance and practical relevance  - green technologies, design, standards, maturity models, strategies and adoption
  • Highlights several useful approaches to embracing green IT in several areas
  • Features chapters written by accomplished experts from industry and academia who have first-hand knowledge and expertise in specific areas of green IT
  • Presents a set of review and discussion questions for each chapter that will help the readers to examine and explore the green IT domain further
  • Includes a companion website providing  resources for further information and presentation slides

This book will be an invaluable resource for IT Professionals, academics, students, researchers, project leaders/managers, IT business executives, CIOs, CTOs and anyone interested in Green IT and harnessing it to enhance our environment.

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About the Editors xix

About the Authors xxi

Foreword xxix

Preface xxxi

Acknowledgements xxxv

1 Green IT: An Overview 1
San Murugesan and G.R. Gangadharan

Key Points 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development 2

1.2.1 The Inconvenient Truth 3

1.2.2 Sustainable Development 4

1.2.3 Why Should You Go Green? 4

1.3 Environmental Impacts of IT 4

1.4 Green IT 5

1.4.1 OCED Green IT Framework 6

1.4.2 Green IT 1.0 and 2.0 7

1.5 Holistic Approach to Greening IT 7

1.5.1 Greening Computer’s Entire Life Cycle 8

1.5.2 The Three Rs of Green IT 9

1.6 Greening IT 10

1.6.1 Green PCs, Notebooks and Servers 10

1.6.2 Green Data Centres 10

1.6.3 Green Cloud Computing 12

1.6.4 Green Data Storage 12

1.6.5 Green Software 13

1.6.6 Green Networking and Communications 13

1.7 Applying IT for Enhancing Environmental Sustainability 14

1.8 Green IT Standards and Eco-Labelling of IT 15

1.9 Enterprise Green IT Strategy 15

1.9.1 Green Washing 17

1.10 Green IT: Burden or Opportunity? 17

1.11 Conclusion 18

Review Questions 19

Discussion Questions 19

References 19

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites 20

2 Green Devices and Hardware 23
Ashok Pon Kumar and Sateesh S. Kannegala

Key Points 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Life Cycle of a Device or Hardware 24

2.2.1 Design 25

2.2.2 Manufacturing 26

2.2.3 Packaging and Transportation 28

2.2.4 Use 29

2.3 Reuse, Recycle and Dispose 34

2.4 Conclusions 36

Review Questions 37

Discussion Questions 37

References 37

3 Green Software 39
Bob Steigerwald and Abhishek Agrawal

Key Points 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.1.1 Processor Power States 40

3.2 Energy-Saving Software Techniques 41

3.2.1 Computational Efficiency 42

3.2.2 Data Efficiency 45

3.2.3 Context Awareness 49

3.2.4 Idle Efficiency 52

3.3 Evaluating and Measuring Software Impact to Platform Power 55

3.3.1 Fluke NetDAQ (Networked Data Acquisition Unit) 55

3.3.2 Software Tools 57

3.4 Summary 59

Acknowledgements 60

Review Questions 61

Discussion Questions 61

References 61

Further Reading 62

4 Sustainable Software Development 63
Felipe Albertao

Key Points 63

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Current Practices 64

4.3 Sustainable Software 65

4.4 Software Sustainability Attributes 66

4.5 Software Sustainability Metrics 68

4.5.1 Modifiability and Reusability 68

4.5.2 Portability 70

4.5.3 Supportability 71

4.5.4 Performance 71

4.5.5 Dependability 71

4.5.6 Usability 71

4.5.7 Accessibility 72

4.5.8 Predictability 72

4.5.9 Efficiency 73

4.5.10 Project’s Carbon Footprint 73

4.6 Sustainable Software Methodology 73

4.6.1 Collecting Metrics 73

4.6.2 Code Metrics Tools 74

4.6.3 Simplified Usability Study 75

4.6.4 Platform Analysis 76

4.6.5 Existing Project Statistics 77

4.7 Defining Actions 77

4.8 Case Study 78

4.8.1 Modifiability and Reusability 78

4.8.2 Portability 78

4.8.3 Supportability 79

4.8.4 Performance 79

4.8.5 Dependability 79

4.8.6 Usability 79

4.8.7 Accessibility 79

4.8.8 Predictability 81

4.8.9 Efficiency 81

4.8.10 Project’s Footprint 81

4.8.11 Results and Actions 81

4.9 Conclusions 82

Review Questions 82

Discussion Questions 82

References 83

5 Green Data Centres 85
Charles G. Sheridan, Keith A. Ellis, Enrique G. Castro-Leon and Christopher P. Fowler

Key Points 85

5.1 Data Centres and Associated Energy Challenges 85

5.2 Data Centre IT Infrastructure 87

5.2.1 Servers 87

5.2.2 Networking 89

5.2.3 Storage 89

5.2.4 IT Platform Innovation 90

5.3 Data Centre Facility Infrastructure: Implications for Energy Efficiency 92

5.3.1 Power System 92

5.3.2 Cooling 95

5.3.3 Facilities Infrastructure Management 97

5.4 IT Infrastructure Management 98

5.4.1 Server Power 98

5.4.2 Consolidation 101

5.4.3 Virtualization 104

5.5 Green Data Centre Metrics 106

5.5.1 PUE and DCiE 106

5.5.2 Power versus Energy Consumption 107

5.6 Data Centre Management Strategies: A Case Study 108

5.6.1 Challenges 108

5.6.2 Tested Solution 108

5.6.3 Impact 108

5.6.4 A Thorough Evaluation 109

5.7 Conclusions 110

Review Questions 111

Discussion Questions 111

References 111

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites 112

6 Green Data Storage 113
Pin Zhou and Nagapramod Mandagere

Key Points 113

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Storage Media Power Characteristics 115

6.2.1 Hard Disks 115

6.2.2 Magnetic Tapes 117

6.2.3 Solid-State Drives (SSDs) 117

6.3 Energy Management Techniques for Hard Disks 118

6.3.1 State Transitioning 118

6.3.2 Caching 118

6.3.3 Dynamic RPM 119

6.4 System-Level Energy Management 119

6.4.1 RAID with Power Awareness 120

6.4.2 Power-Aware Data Layout 120

6.4.3 Hierarchical Storage Management 121

6.4.4 Storage Virtualization 122

6.4.5 Cloud Storage 123

6.5 Summary and Research Areas 124

Review Questions 124

Discussion Questions 124

References 124

7 Green Networks and Communications 127
Cathryn Peoples, Gerard Parr, Sally McClean and Philip Morrow

Key Points 127

7.1 Introduction 127

7.1.1 Green Network Communications and Management: Background 128

7.1.2 The Challenge of Next-Generation Networks 129

7.1.3 Benefits of Energy-Efficient Networks 130

7.1.4 Objectives of Green Networking 131

7.1.5 Core Components in Green-Networking Technology 132

7.2 Objectives of Green Network Protocols 132

7.2.1 Energy-Optimizing Protocol Design 133

7.2.2 Bit Costs Associated with Network Communication Protocols 135

7.2.3 Objectives of Green Network Protocols 138

7.3 Green Network Protocols and Standards 140

7.3.1 Strategies to Reduce Carbon Emissions 140

7.3.2 Contributions from the EMAN Working Group 140

7.3.3 Contributions from Standardization Bodies 142

7.3.4 Context Detail to Drive Energy Efficiency 142

7.4 Conclusions 145

Acknowledgements 145

Review Questions 145

Discussion Questions 146

References 146

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites 148

8 Enterprise Green IT Strategy 149
Bhuvan Unhelkar

Key Points 149

8.1 Introduction 149

8.2 Approaching Green IT Strategies 151

8.3 Business Drivers of Green IT Strategy 153

8.3.1 Cost Reduction 153

8.3.2 Demands from Legal and Regulatory Requirements 154

8.3.3 Sociocultural and Political Pressure 155

8.3.4 Enlightened Self-Interest 155

8.3.5 Collaborative Business Ecosystem 155

8.3.6 New Market Opportunities 156

8.4 Business Dimensions for Green IT Transformation 156

8.4.1 Economy 157

8.4.2 Technology 157

8.4.3 Process 158

8.4.4 People 158

8.5 Organizational Considerations in a Green IT Strategy 160

8.6 Steps in Developing a Green IT Strategy 161

8.7 Metrics and Measurements in Green Strategies 163

8.8 Conclusions 164

Review Questions 164

Discussion Questions 164

References 164

9 Sustainable Information Systems and Green Metrics 167
Edward Curry and Brian Donnellan

Key Points 167

9.1 Introduction 167

9.2 Multilevel Sustainable Information 168

9.3 Sustainability Hierarchy Models 170

9.3.1 Sustainability Frameworks 170

9.3.2 Sustainability Principles 172

9.3.3 Tools for Sustainability 172

9.4 Product Level Information 173

9.4.1 Life-Cycle Assessment 173

9.4.2 The Four Stages of LCA 173

9.4.3 CRT Monitors versus LCD Monitors: Life Cycle Assessment 174

9.5 Individual Level Information 174

9.6 Functional Level Information 176

9.6.1 Data Centre Energy Efficiency 176

9.6.2 Data Centre Power Metrics 176

9.6.3 Emerging Data Centre Metrics 177

9.7 Organizational Level Information 178

9.7.1 Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions 178

9.8 Regional/City Level Information 181

9.8.1 Developing a City Sustainability Plan: A Case Study 181

9.9 Measuring the Maturity of Sustainable ICT 182

9.9.1 A Capability Maturity Framework for SICT 182

9.9.2 Defining the Scope and Goal 185

9.9.3 Capability Maturity Levels 185

9.9.4 SICT Capability Building Blocks 186

9.9.5 Assessing and Managing SICT Progress 188

9.10 Conclusions 189

Appendix: Sustainability Tools and Standards 190

Acknowledgements 195

Review Questions 195

Discussion Questions 196

References 196

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites 197

Tools and Carbon Calculators 198

10 Enterprise Green IT Readiness 199
Alemayehu Molla and Vanessa Cooper

Key Points 199

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 Background: Readiness and Capability 201

10.3 Development of the G-Readiness Framework 202

10.3.1 Green IT Attitude 203

10.3.2 Green IT Policy 204

10.3.3 Green IT Governance 204

10.3.4 Green IT Practice 205

10.3.5 Green IT Technology 205

10.4 Measuring an Organization’s G-Readiness 206

10.4.1 G-Readiness Consultancy Services 206

10.4.2 Calculating the G-Readiness Index via a Survey Instrument 207

10.5 Conclusions 207

Review Questions 208

Discussion Questions 209

References 209

11 Sustainable IT Services: Creating a Framework for Service Innovation 211
Robert R. Harmon and Haluk Demirkan

Key Points 211

11.1 Introduction 211

11.2 Factors Driving the Development of Sustainable IT 213

11.2.1 The Sustainability Dimensions of IT 213

11.2.2 Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and IT 216

11.3 Sustainable IT Services (SITS) 219

11.3.1 Developing a Service-Dominant Logic 219

11.3.2 Business Value, Customer Value and Societal Value 220

11.3.3 SITS as Service Science 222

11.4 SITS Strategic Framework 224

11.4.1 The SITS Value Curve 224

11.4.2 Integrating Sustainable IT and Business Strategy 227

11.5 Sustainable IT Roadmap 229

11.5.1 Time Horizon 229

11.5.2 Market Segments 229

11.5.3 Products, Services and Technologies 229

11.5.4 Compliance, Regulations, Standards and Reporting 231

11.5.5 SITS Standards and Reporting 232

11.5.6 Organizational Changes 232

11.5.7 Value Goals 232

11.6 SITS Leadership and Best Practices 233

11.6.1 IBM 233

11.6.2 Cisco Systems, Inc. 233

11.6.3 Siemens AG 235

11.6.4 HP 235

11.6.5 Intel Corporation 235

11.6.6 Microsoft Corporation 235

11.6.7 Oracle 236

11.6.8 Google 236

11.6.9 Apple 236

11.6.10 Samsung 236

11.6.11 Pachube 236

11.6.12 SeeClickFix 237

11.7 Conclusions 237

11.8 Summary 237

Review Questions 238

Discussion Questions 238

References 238

Useful Web Sites 242

12 Green Enterprises and the Role of IT 243
Joseph Sarkis

Key Points 243

12.1 Introduction 243

12.2 Organizational and Enterprise Greening 244

12.2.1 The Green Enterprise: A Value Chain Perspective 245

12.3 Information Systems in Greening Enterprises 248

12.3.1 Environmental Management Information Systems 250

12.3.2 Software and Databases 250

12.3.3 ERP EMISs 250

12.3.4 ERP Challenges and Deficiencies with Respect to EMIS 254

12.3.5 Integrating Environmental and LCA Information with ERP 254

12.3.6 Electronic Environmental and Sustainability Reporting 255

12.4 Greening the Enterprise: IT Usage and Hardware 255

12.4.1 Environmental Information Technology Standards 256

12.4.2 Green Management of Data Centres 256

12.5 Inter-organizational Enterprise Activities and Green Issues 256

12.5.1 Electronic Commerce and Greening the Extended Enterprise 257

12.5.2 Demanufacturing and Reverse Logistics 258

12.5.3 Eco-Industrial Parks and Information Systems 259

12.6 Enablers and Making the Case for IT and the Green Enterprise 261

12.7 Conclusions 262

Review Questions 262

Discussion Questions 262

References 263

13 Environmentally Aware Business Process Improvement in the Enterprise Context 265
Konstantin Hoesch-Klohe and Aditya Ghose

Key Points 265

13.1 Introduction 265

13.2 Identifying the Environmental Impact of an Activity or Process 266

13.2.1 Educated Guess by an Expert 266

13.2.2 Derivation from a Resource Model 267

13.2.3 Carbon-Dioxide Accumulation 267

13.2.4 Activity-Based Costing 267

13.3 A Decision Support Tool for Environmentally Aware Business Process Improvement 268

13.3.1 Some Preliminaries 268

13.3.2 The Business Process Improvement System 269

13.4 Process Improvement in the Enterprise Context 270

13.4.1 The Enterprise Ecosystem 271

13.4.2 Enterprise Ecosystem Equilibrium 272

13.5 Impact and Change Propagation Analysis 272

13.5.1 Identifying the Consequences of a Business Process Change 272

13.5.2 Re-Establishing a State of Equilibrium 273

13.6 Trade-Off Analysis 275

13.6.1 Cost to Bring about the Change 275

13.6.2 Environmental Operating Costs 276

13.7 An Example 276

13.7.1 As-Is Scenario 276

13.7.2 Improvement Scenarios 277

13.7.3 Assessing Scenarios 278

13.8 Conclusions 280

Review Questions 280

Discussion Questions 280

References 280

14 Managing Green IT 283
Linda R. Wilbanks

Key Points 283

14.1 Introduction 283

14.2 Strategizing Green Initiatives 284

14.2.1 Strategic Thinking 284

14.2.2 Strategic Planning 285

14.2.3 Strategic Implementation 286

14.2.4 Enterprise Architecture Planning 286

14.3 Implementation of Green IT 288

14.3.1 Return on Investment 289

14.3.2 Metrics 290

14.3.3 The Goal–Question–Metric (GQM) Paradigm 291

14.4 Information Assurance 292

14.4.1 Risk Management 292

14.5 Communication and Social Media 294

14.6 Case Study 295

14.7 Summary 296

Review Questions 296

Discussion Questions 296

References 296

15 Regulating Green IT: Laws, Standards and Protocols 297
Tom Butler

Key Points 297

15.1 Introduction 297

15.2 The Regulatory Environment and IT Manufacturers 299

15.2.1 RoHS 300

15.2.2 REACh 301

15.2.3 WEEE 302

15.2.4 Legislating for GHG Emissions and Energy Use of IT Equipment 303

15.3 Nonregulatory Government Initiatives 303

15.4 Industry Associations and Standards Bodies 305

15.5 Green Building Standards 306

15.6 Green Data Centres 306

15.7 Social Movements and Greenpeace 308

15.8 Conclusions 311

Review Questions 312

Discussion Questions 313

References 313

Further Reading 314

16 Green Cloud Computing and Environmental Sustainability 315
Saurabh Kumar Garg and Rajkumar Buyya

Key Points 315

16.1 Introduction 315

16.2 What is Cloud Computing? 318

16.2.1 Cloud Computing Characteristics 318

16.2.2 Components of Cloud Computing 319

16.2.3 Cloud Computing Deployment Models 321

16.3 Cloud Computing and Energy Usage Model: A Typical Example 322

16.3.1 User and Cloud Software Applications 323

16.3.2 Cloud Software Stack for the SaaS, PaaS and IaaS Levels 323

16.3.3 Network Devices 324

16.3.4 Data Centres 325

16.4 Features of Clouds Enabling Green Computing 325

16.5 Towards Energy Efficiency of Cloud Computing 327

16.5.1 Applications 327

16.5.2 Cloud Software Stack: Virtualization and Provisioning 327

16.5.3 Data Centre Level: Cooling, Hardware, Network and Storage 329

16.5.4 Monitoring and Metering 330

16.5.5 Network Infrastructure 331

16.6 Green Cloud Architecture 332

16.7 Case Study: IaaS Provider 334

16.8 Conclusions and Future Directions 336

Acknowledgements 337

Review Questions 337

Discussion Questions 337

References 337

17 Harnessing Semantic Web Technologies for the Environmental Sustainability of Production Systems 341
Chris Davis, Igor Nikolic and Gerard Dijkema

Key Points 341

17.1 Introduction 341

17.2 Information Management for Environmental Sustainability 344

17.2.1 Invisible Coordination 344

17.2.2 Sustainability and Networks 344

17.2.3 Need for Information Management Techniques 345

17.3 Ecosystem of Software Tools 346

17.3.1 MediaWiki 346

17.3.2 Semantic MediaWiki 348

17.3.3 SparqlExtension 350

17.3.4 Semantic Web 351

17.4 Examples of Managing Data 353

17.4.1 Pages for Commodities 353

17.4.2 Pages for Processes 354

17.4.3 Pages for Overviews and Information Management 356

17.4.4 Reuse of Data across Multiple Levels and Points of View 358

17.5 Challenges and Guiding Principles 358

17.5.1 Challenges 358

17.5.2 Guiding Principles 359

17.6 Conclusions 360

Review Questions 361

Discussion Questions 361

References 361

Further Reading and Useful Web Sites 363

18 Green IT: An Outlook 365
San Murugesan and G.R. Gangadharan

Key Points 365

18.1 Introduction 365

18.2 Awareness to Implementation 366

18.2.1 Green IT Trends 366

18.2.2 Green Engineering 367

18.3 Greening by IT 368

18.3.1 Using RFID for Environmental Sustainability 368

18.3.2 Smart Grids 369

18.3.3 Smart Buildings and Homes 371

18.3.4 Green Supply Chain and Logistics 371

18.3.5 Enterprise-Wide Environmental Sustainability 372

18.4 Green IT: A Megatrend? 373

18.4.1 Outsourcing and Environmental Attributes 374

18.4.2 Green Audit 375

18.5 A Seven-Step Approach to Creating Green IT Strategy 375

18.5.1 Balancing the Costs and Benefits of Going Green 376

18.6 Research and Development Directions 376

18.7 Prospects 377

Review Questions 378

Discussion Questions 378

References 378

Glossary 381

Index 389

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Dr San Murugesan, University of Western Sydney, Australia
San Murugesan is Adjunct Professor in the School of Computing and Mathematics at the University of Western Sydney, Australia; and an independent IT, Research and education consultant. He is Director of the consulting firm BRITE Professional Services. He holds PhD; MTech and BE (Hons) degrees.

Dr. G.R. Gangadharan, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
G.R. Gangadharan is working as a Researcher in Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Prior to joining in PoliMi, he worked as a researcher at Novay (Telematica Institute), Enschede, Netherlands from June 2008 to February 2010. His research interests are mainly located on the interface between technological and business perspectives. He has received Ph.D. degree in Information and Communication Technology (2008) from the University of Trento, Trento, Italy and European University Association.

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"This book will be an excellent resource for IT Professionals, academics, students, researchers, project leaders/managers, IT business executives, CIOs, CTOs and anyone interested in Green IT and harnessing it to enhance our environment.”  (Computer Science of India (CSI) enewsletter), 1 February 2013)



 

Ultimately, this is a remarkable book, a practical testimonial, and a comprehensive bibliography rolled into one. It is a single, bright sword cut across the various murky green IT topics. And if my mistakes and lessons learned through the green IT journey are any indication, this book will be used every day by folks interested in greening IT.

Simon Y. Liu, Ph.D. & Ed.D., Editor-in-Chief, IT Professional Magazine, IEEE Computer Society, Director, U.S. National Agricultural Library.   

Harnessing Green IT showcases a collection of the most topical, innovative, and interesting topics in the green IT field. There have been relatively few practical and useful books on green IT. Harnessing Green IT is a timely publication for those who are interested in learning the principles and practices of green IT and in adopting or deploying green IT.

 In Lee, Professor in the School of Computer Science, and Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of E-Business Research (IJEBR), Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL, USA


Finally, there is a book that gets to the heart of why sustainability is so important to the future of information technology and the planet.  Murugesan and Gangadharan, with Harnessing Green IT, have brought forward a work that is grounded both in research and experience that provides a strong foundation for the emerging discipline and managerial practice. 

Robert R. Harmon, Professor of Marketing & Technology Management, Cameron Research Fellow, School of Business, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon

There are very few books that can be used by students, researchers, and practitioners, a like. This is a very good example of such a book. The balance of theory and practice is well documented and reported in an easy to comprehend style of writing. A must read!

Samee U. Khan, Chair IEEE TCSC Technical Area in Green Computing, Director of the NDSU-CIIT Green Computing and Communications Laboratory, North Dakota State University, USA

 

 Recently green computing has attracting increasingly focus from computer scientists and IT professionals. This book summarizes Green IT principles and practices. I would like to congratulate the editors of this volume for putting together such a comprehensive and timely collection. I do believe that this book will provide a tremendous resource to students, researchers and practitioners, and for having a significant impact on this important and growing field -- Green IT.

Lizhe Wang, Co-Chair, IEEE TCSC Technical Area in Green Computing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China

 

Are you Green ready? If yes, the sheer richness of the content and the way the book is organized can ameliorate your Green readiness quotient. If no, this is the book to lay your hands upon.  The timing of this book could not have been more perfect. This is the best compendium on Green IT that I have had the privilege of reading in recent times. Worth every penny spent!

Praveen B Malla PhD, Author of Corporate Governance: Concept, Evolution and India Story,  Senior Researcher and Head - Thought Leadership Publishing, Infosys Limited, India

 

"Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices" is a very interesting and useful new book that I would recommend for academics, practitioners and industry members. The book presents an holistic view of Green IT revolving around the associated technical aspects, management and business procedures.

Jordi Cucurull Juan, Real-time Systems Laboratory (RTSLab), Linköping University,

 

This new book is an important book in the Green IT area. The most impressive features of this book are the extensive and systematic classifications and summaries on Green IT especially on green computing.  This book would be helpful to students, academic researchers, IT professionals, government policy makers to understand the scope, principles, different approaches, metrics, and standards of Green IT

Jinsong Wu, Chair, IEEE Technical Subcommittee on Green Communications and Computing (TSCGCC), IEEE Communications Society, Bell Laboratories,
Shanghai, China

 

Sustainability is a key growth imperative both for developed world as well those aspiring to achieve that level. The book is replete with ideas for practitioners as well as policy makers. It contains inputs both for strategy and tactical level. I compliment the authors for yeoman service and I am sure that implementation of ideas, concepts, and principles would lead to a better world preserving prosperity for the future generations.

 B. Sambamurthy, Director and CEO, Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology, Hyderabad, India.

 

While much has been achieved in reducing the environmental impact of IT, much remains to be done, and we also need to be aware of the important contribution IT can make to overall environmental efficiency. My experience of running a Green IT course is that we need a source which brings together the achievements and lays out the future challenges, this book does both those things in an accessible form.

Professor Colin Pattinson, Head of School of Computing and Creative Technologies, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

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