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An Introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-Advanced, SAE and 4G Mobile Communications

ISBN: 978-1-119-97038-5
352 pages
April 2012
An Introduction to LTE: LTE, LTE-Advanced, SAE and 4G Mobile Communications (1119970385) cover image
An Introduction to LTE explains the technology used by 3GPP Long Term Evolution. The book covers the whole of LTE, both the techniques used for radio communication between the base station and the mobile phone, and the techniques used for signalling communication and data transport in the evolved packet core. It avoids unnecessary detail, focussing instead on conveying a sound understanding of the entire system.

The book is aimed at mobile telecommunication professionals, who want to understand what LTE is and how it works. It is invaluable for engineers who are working on LTE, notably those who are transferring from other technologies such as UMTS and cdma2000, those who are experts in one part of LTE but who want to understand the system as a whole, and those who are new to mobile telecommunications altogether. It is also relevant to those working in non technical roles, such as project managers, marketing executives and intellectual property consultants. On completing the book, the reader will have a clear understanding of LTE, and will be able to tackle the more specialised books and the 3GPP specifications with confidence.

Key features -

  • Covers the latest developments in release 10 of the 3GPP specifications, including the new capabilities of LTE-Advanced
  • Includes references to individual sections of the 3GPP specifications, to help readers understand the principles of each topic before going to the specifications for more detailed information
  • Requires no previous knowledge of mobile telecommunications, or of the mathematical techniques that LTE uses for radio transmission and reception
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List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction

1.1 Architectural Review of UMTS and GSM

1.1.1 High Level Architecture

1.1.2 Architecture of the Radio Access Network

1.1.3 Architecture of the Core Network

1.1.4 Communication Protocols

1.2 History of Mobile Telecommunication Systems

1.2.1 From 1G to 3G

1.2.2 Third Generation Systems

1.3 The Need for LTE

1.3.1 The Growth of Mobile Data

1.3.2 Capacity of a Mobile Telecommunication System

1.3.3 Increasing the System Capacity

1.3.4 Additional Motivations

1.4 From UMTS to LTE

1.4.1 High Level Architecture of LTE

1.4.2 Long Term Evolution

1.4.3 System Architecture Evolution

1.5 From LTE to LTE-Advanced

1.5.1 The ITU Requirements for 4G

1.5.2 Requirements of LTE-Advanced

1.5.3 4G Communication Systems

1.5.4 The Meaning of 4G

1.6 The 3GPP Specifications for LTE


2 System Architecture Evolution

2.1 Architecture of LTE

2.1.1 High Level Architecture

2.1.2 User Equipment

2.1.3 Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

2.1.4 Evolved Packet Core

2.1.5 Roaming Architecture

2.1.6 Network Areas

2.1.7 Numbering, Addressing and Identification

2.2 Communication Protocols

2.2.1 Protocol Model

2.2.2 Air Interface Transport Protocols

2.2.3 Fixed Network Transport Protocols

2.2.4 User Plane Protocols

2.2.5 Signalling Protocols

2.3 Example Information Flows

2.3.1 Access Stratum Signalling

2.3.2 Non Access Stratum Signalling

2.3.3 Data Transport

2.4 Bearer Management

2.4.1 The EPS Bearer

2.4.2 Tunnelling Using GTP

2.4.3 Tunnelling Using GRE and PMIP

2.4.4 Signalling Radio Bearers

2.5 State Diagrams

2.5.1 EPS Mobility Management

2.5.2 EPS Connection Management

2.5.3 Radio Resource Control

2.6 Spectrum Allocation


3 Digital Wireless Communications

3.1 Radio Transmission and Reception

3.1.1 Signal Transmission

3.1.2 Signal Reception

3.1.3 Channel Estimation

3.1.4 Multiple Access Techniques

3.1.5 FDD and TDD Modes

3.2 Multipath, Fading and Inter-Symbol Interference

3.2.1 Multipath and Fading

3.2.2 Inter-Symbol Interference

3.3 Error Management

3.3.1 Forward Error Correction

3.3.2 Automatic Repeat Request

3.3.3 Hybrid ARQ


4 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

4.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

4.1.1 Reduction of Inter-Symbol Interference using OFDM

4.1.2 The OFDM Transmitter

4.1.3 Initial Block Diagram 65

4.2 OFDMA in a Mobile Cellular Network

4.2.1 Multiple Access

4.2.2 Fractional Frequency Re-Use

4.2.3 Channel Estimation

4.2.4 Cyclic Prefix Insertion

4.2.5 Use of the Frequency Domain

4.2.6 Choice of Sub-Carrier Spacing

4.3 Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

4.3.1 Power Variations from OFDMA

4.3.2 Block Diagram of SC-FDMA


5 Multiple Antenna Techniques

5.1 Diversity Processing

5.1.1 Receive Diversity

5.1.2 Closed Loop Transmit Diversity

5.1.3 Open Loop Transmit Diversity

5.2 Spatial Multiplexing

5.2.1 Principles of Operation

5.2.2 Open Loop Spatial Multiplexing

5.2.3 Closed Loop Spatial Multiplexing

5.2.4 Matrix Representation

5.2.5 Implementation Issues

5.2.6 Multiple User MIMO

5.3 Beamforming

5.3.1 Principles of Operation

5.3.2 Beam Steering

5.3.3 Dual Layer Beamforming

5.3.4 Downlink Multiple User MIMO Revisited


6 Architecture of the LTE Air Interface

6.1 Air Interface Protocol Stack

6.2 Logical, Transport and Physical Channels

6.2.1 Logical Channels

6.2.2 Transport Channels

6.2.3 Physical Data Channels

6.2.4 Control Information

6.2.5 Physical Control Channels

6.2.6 Physical Signals

6.2.7 Information Flows

6.3 The Resource Grid

6.3.1 Slot Structure

6.3.2 Frame Structure

6.3.3 Uplink Timing Advance

6.3.4 Resource Grid Structure

6.3.5 Bandwidth Options

6.4 Multiple Antenna Transmission

6.4.1 Downlink Antenna Ports

6.4.2 Downlink Transmission Modes

6.5 Resource Element Mapping

6.5.1 Downlink Resource Element Mapping

6.5.2 Uplink Resource Element Mapping


7 Cell Acquisition

7.1 Acquisition Procedure

7.2 Synchronization Signals

7.2.1 Physical Cell Identity

7.2.2 Primary Synchronization Signal

7.2.3 Secondary Synchronization Signal

7.3 Downlink Reference Signals

7.4 Physical Broadcast Channel

7.5 Physical Control Format Indicator Channel

7.6 System Information

7.6.1 Organization of the System Information

7.6.2 Transmission and Reception of the System Information

7.7 Procedures After Acquisition


8 Data Transmission and Reception

8.1 Data Transmission Procedures

8.1.1 Downlink Transmission and Reception

8.1.2 Uplink Transmission and Reception

8.1.3 Semi Persistent Scheduling

8.2 Transmission of Scheduling Messages on the PDCCH

8.2.1 Downlink Control Information

8.2.2 Resource Allocation

8.2.3 Example: DCI Format 1

8.2.4 Radio Network Temporary Identifiers

8.2.5 Transmission and Reception of the PDCCH

8.3 Data Transmission on the PDSCH and PUSCH

8.3.1 Transport Channel Processing

8.3.2 Physical Channel Processing

8.4 Transmission of Hybrid ARQ Indicators on the PHICH

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Resource Element Mapping of the PHICH

8.4.3 Physical Channel Processing of the PHICH

8.5 Uplink Control Information

8.5.1 Hybrid ARQ Acknowledgements

8.5.2 Channel Quality Indicator

8.5.3 Rank Indication

8.5.4 Precoding Matrix Indicator

8.5.5 Channel State Reporting Mechanisms

8.5.6 Scheduling Requests

8.6 Transmission of Uplink Control Information on the PUCCH

8.6.1 PUCCH Formats

8.6.2 PUCCH Resources

8.6.3 Physical Channel Processing of the PUCCH

8.7 Uplink Reference Signals

8.7.1 Demodulation Reference Signal

8.7.2 Sounding Reference Signal

8.8 Uplink Power Control

8.8.1 Uplink Power Calculation

8.8.2 Uplink Power Control Commands

8.9 Discontinuous Reception

8.9.1 Discontinuous Reception and Paging in RRC_IDLE

8.9.2 Discontinuous Reception in RRC_CONNECTED


9 Random Access

9.1 Transmission of Random Access Preambles on the PRACH

9.1.1 Resource Element Mapping

9.1.2 Preamble Sequence Generation

9.1.3 Signal Transmission

9.2 Non Contention Based Procedure

9.3 Contention Based Procedure


10 Air Interface Layer 2

10.1 Medium Access Control Protocol

10.1.1 Protocol Architecture

10.1.2 Timing Advance Commands

10.1.3 Buffer Status Reporting

10.1.4 Power Headroom Reporting

10.1.5 Multiplexing and De-Multiplexing

10.1.6 Logical Channel Prioritization

10.1.7 Scheduling of Transmissions on the Air Interface

10.2 Radio Link Control Protocol

10.2.1 Protocol Architecture

10.2.2 Transparent Mode

10.2.3 Unacknowledged Mode

10.2.4 Acknowledged Mode

10.3 Packet Data Convergence Protocol

10.3.1 Protocol Architecture

10.3.2 Header Compression

10.3.3 Prevention of Packet Loss during Handover


11 Power-On and Power-Off Procedures

11.1 Power-On Sequence

11.2 Network and Cell Selection

11.2.1 Network Selection

11.2.2 Closed Subscriber Group Selection

11.2.3 Cell Selection

11.3 RRC Connection Establishment

11.3.1 Basic Procedure

11.3.2 Relationship with Other Procedures

11.4 Attach Procedure

11.4.1 IP Address Allocation

11.4.2 Overview of the Attach Procedure

11.4.3 Attach Request

11.4.4 Identification and Security Procedures

11.4.5 Location Update

11.4.6 Default Bearer Creation

11.4.7 Attach Accept

11.4.8 Default Bearer Update

11.5 Detach Procedure


12 Security Procedures

12.1 Network Access Security

12.1.1 Security Architecture

12.1.2 Key Hierarchy

12.1.3 Authentication and Key Agreement

12.1.4 Security Activation

12.1.5 Ciphering

12.1.6 Integrity Protection

12.2 Network Domain Security

12.2.1 Security Protocols

12.2.2 Security in the Evolved Packet Core

12.2.3 Security in the Radio Access Network


13 Quality of Service, Policy and Charging

13.1 Policy and Charging Control

13.1.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Quality of Service Parameters

13.1.3 Policy Control Architecture

13.2 Session Management Procedures

13.2.1 IP-CAN Session Establishment

13.2.2 Mobile Originated QoS Request

13.2.3 Server Originated QoS Request

13.2.4 Dedicated Bearer Establishment

13.2.5 Other Session Management Procedures

13.3 Charging and Billing

13.3.1 High Level Architecture

13.3.2 Offline Charging

13.3.3 Online Charging


14 Mobility Management

14.1 Transitions between Mobility Management States

14.1.1 S1 Release Procedure

14.1.2 Paging Procedure

14.1.3 Service Request Procedure

14.2 Cell Reselection in RRC_IDLE

14.2.1 Objectives

14.2.2 Cell Reselection on the Same LTE Frequency

14.2.3 Cell Reselection to a Different LTE Frequency

14.2.4 Fast Moving Mobiles

14.2.5 Tracking Area Update Procedure

14.2.6 Network Reselection

14.3 Measurements in RRC_CONNECTED

14.3.1 Objectives

14.3.2 Measurement Procedure

14.3.3 Measurement Reporting

14.3.4 Measurement Gaps

14.4 Handover in RRC_CONNECTED

14.4.1 X2 Based Handover Procedure

14.4.2 Handover Variations


15 Inter-System Operation

15.1 Inter-Operation with UMTS and GSM

15.1.1 S3-Based Architecture

15.1.2 Gn/Gp-Based Architecture

15.1.3 Bearer Management

15.1.4 Power-On Procedures

15.1.5 Cell Reselection in RRC_IDLE

15.1.6 Idle Mode Signalling Reduction

15.1.7 Measurements in RRC_CONNECTED

15.1.8 Handover in RRC_CONNECTED

15.2 Inter-Operation with Generic Non 3GPP Technologies

15.2.1 Network Based Mobility Architecture

15.2.2 Host Based Mobility Architecture 241

15.2.3 Attach Procedure

15.2.4 Cell Reselection and Handover

15.3 Inter-Operation with cdma2000 HRPD

15.3.1 System Architecture

15.3.2 Preregistration with cdma2000

15.3.3 Cell Reselection in RRC_IDLE

15.3.4 Measurements and Handover in RRC_CONNECTED


16 Delivery of Voice and Text Messages over LTE

16.1 The Market for Voice and SMS

16.2 Third Party Voice over IP

16.3 The IP Multimedia Subsystem

16.3.1 IMS Architecture

16.3.2 IMS Procedures

16.3.3 SMS over the IMS

16.4 Circuit Switched Fallback

16.4.1 Architecture

16.4.2 Combined EPS/IMSI Attach Procedure

16.4.3 Voice Call Setup

16.4.4 SMS over SGs

16.4.5 Circuit Switched Fallback to cdma2000 1xRTT

16.5 VoLGA


17 Enhancements in Release 9

17.1 Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service

17.1.1 Introduction

17.1.2 Multicast/Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network

17.1.3 Implementation of MBSFN in LTE

17.1.4 Architecture of MBMS

17.1.5 Operation of MBMS

17.2 Location Services

17.2.1 Introduction

17.2.2 Positioning Techniques

17.2.3 Location Service Architecture

17.2.4 Location Service Procedures

17.3 Other Enhancements in Release 9

17.3.1 Dual Layer Beamforming

17.3.2 Commercial Mobile Alert System

17.3.3 Enhancements to Earlier Features of LTE


18 LTE-Advanced and Release 10

18.1 Carrier Aggregation

18.1.1 Principles of Operation

18.1.2 UE Capabilities

18.1.3 Scheduling

18.1.4 Data Transmission and Reception

18.1.5 Uplink and Downlink Feedback

18.1.6 Other Physical Layer and MAC Procedures

18.1.7 RRC Procedures

18.2 Enhanced Downlink MIMO

18.2.1 Objectives

18.2.2 Downlink Reference Signals

18.2.3 Downlink Transmission and Feedback

18.3 Enhanced Uplink MIMO

18.3.1 Objectives

18.3.2 Implementation

18.4 Relays

18.4.1 Principles of Operation

18.4.2 Relaying Architecture

18.4.3 Enhancements to the Air Interface

18.5 Release 11 and Beyond

18.5.1 Coordinated Multipoint Transmission and Reception

18.5.2 Enhanced Carrier Aggregation


19 Self Optimizing Networks

19.1 Self Optimizing Networks in Release 8

19.1.1 Self Configuration of an eNB

19.1.2 Automatic Neighbour Relations

19.1.3 Interference Coordination

19.1.4 Mobility Load Balancing

19.2 New Features in Release 9

19.2.1 Mobility Robustness Optimization

19.2.2 Random Access Channel Optimization

19.2.3 Energy Saving

20 Performance of LTE and LTE-Advanced

20.1 Coverage Estimation

20.2 Peak Data Rates of LTE and LTE-Advanced

20.2.1 Increase of the Peak Data Rate

20.2.2 Limitations on the Peak Data Rate

20.3 Typical Data Rates of LTE and LTE-Advanced

20.3.1 Total Cell Capacity

20.3.2 Data Rate at the Cell Edge




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Christopher Cox is a professional technical trainer and consultant in mobile telecommunications. He has a degree in Physics and a PhD in Radio Astronomy from the University of Cambridge, and 20 years’ experience in scientific and technical consultancy, telecommunications and training.
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