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Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning: The INPP Developmental Screening Test and School Intervention Programme

ISBN: 978-1-119-97068-2
106 pages
April 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning: The INPP Developmental Screening Test and School Intervention Programme (1119970687) cover image
Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning is a substantially revised and expanded edition of a long established INPP training manual that has been consistently proven in practice. The package includes tests for children, a developmental movement programme, and information about online access to INPP video training materials.
  • Based on the proven INPP model for neuromotor development screening and intervention, which is unique in having been rigorously evaluated in research and practice
  • Expands and revises an INPP manual which has previously only been available to training customers, and which is a foundation stone of the overall INPP approach
  • Places emphasis on children's physical development and how neuro-motor skills provide the foundations for learning success.
  • The package includes batteries of tests for younger and older children, a developmental movement programme
  • This book may be supported and enhanced by INPP video training materials and score sheets, available for download purchase from the INPP website
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Acknowledgements ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Rationale for Screening and Remediation of Neuromotor Immaturity 2

1.3 What is INPP? 2

1.4 The INPP Developmental Movement Programme for Schools 3

1.5 What is Neuromotor Immaturity? 4

1.6 What is the Significance of Primitive Reflexes to Education? 4

1.7 What are Primitive Reflexes? 5

1.8 What is the Significance of Neuromotor Maturity to Education? 5

1.9 What is the Purpose of Developmental Screening Tests? 7

1.10 Why Assess Posture and Balance? 7

1.11 Why Carry Out Assessments for Balance? 8

1.12 What is the Difference Between Static Balance and Dynamic Balance? 8

1.13 What is the Significance of Postural Control to Learning? 9

1.14 Primitive Reflexes: Why Have These Three Reflexes Been Selected for Evaluation? 9

1.14.1 The Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 9

1.14.2 The Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 10

1.14.3 The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) 12

1.15 What Evidence is There Linking Balance, Posture and Reflexes to Educational Achievement? 12

1.16 What Evidence is There That Intervention in the Form of Movement Programmes Aimed at the Level of Primitive Reflexes Improves Educational Outcomes? 15

1.17 How to Use The Screening Tests 16

References 16

2 Developmental Screening Tests for Use with Children Aged 4–7 Years 20

2.1 General instructions 20

2.1.1 Scoring 20

2.1.2 Tests 21

2.2 Neuromotor tests 21

2.2.1 The Romberg Test 21

2.2.2 One Leg Stand 23

2.2.3 The Crawling on Hands and Knees Test 24

2.2.4 Crossing the Midline, Test No. 1 25

2.2.5 Crossing the Midline, Test No. 2 26

2.2.6 Finger and Thumb Opposition Test 27

2.3 Tests for Primitive Reflexes 29

2.3.1 Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 29

2.3.2 The Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 31

2.3.3 Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) – Erect Test 32

2.4 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 34

2.4.1 Pencil and Paper Tasks 35

2.4.2 Additional Measures 37

2.5 Score Sheets for 4–7 Year Old Test 39

2.6 Observation Sheets 40

2.7 Interpreting the Scores 41

2.7.1 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination, Balance and Reflexes 41

2.7.2 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 41

References 41

3 Developmental Screening Tests for Use with Children from 7 Years of Age 43

3.1 General Instructions 43

3.1.1 Scoring 43

3.1.2 The Tests 44

3.2 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination and Balance 44

3.2.1 Tandem Walk 44

3.2.2 Walking on the Outsides of the Feet (Fog Test) 46

3.3 Tests for Aberrant Primitive Reflexes 47

3.3.1 The Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) 47

3.3.2 Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (STNR) 51

3.3.3 The Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) 52

3.4 Tests for Oculomotor Functioning 53

3.4.1 Test for Fixation, Convergence and Control of Saccades (Valett) 54

3.4.2 Test for Visual Integration 54

3.5 Tests for Visual-Speech Recognition 55

3.5.1 Sound Discrimination (Individual Sounds, Sound Blends and Syllables) 55

3.5.2 Sound Synthesis 55

3.6 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 56

3.6.1 Visual Perception 57

3.6.2 Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) 57

3.6.3 Spatial Difficulties 59

3.6.4 The Tansley Standard Visual Figures Test 59

3.6.5 Figures Based on The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test 59

3.6.6 Scoring the Visual-Perceptual Tests 61

3.6.7 Additional Measures 65

3.7 Score Sheets (7þ Test) 66

3.8 Observation Sheets (7þ Test) 67

3.9 How to Interpret The Scores 68

3.9.1 Tests for Gross Muscle Coordination, Balance and Reflexes 68

3.9.2 Tests for Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration 68

3.9.3 Tests for Auditory–Speech Recognition 68

References 69

4 The INPP Developmental Movement Programme 70

4.1 How to use the INPP Developmental Movement Programme 70

4.1.1 Developmental Movements 71

4.1.2 Why Use a Movement Programme to Improve Educational Performance? 71

4.1.3 Instructions for Use of the Exercises 72

4.1.4 Guidelines for Schedule for Exercises 72

4.2 The Developmental Movement Programme 73

4.2.1 Introduction 73

4.2.2 Windmills 73

4.2.3 Caterpillar 74

4.2.4 The Curious Caterpillar 75

4.2.5 The Sea Anemone 75

4.2.6 The Octopus (Part 1) 76

4.2.7 The Agitated Caterpillar 76

4.2.8 The Parachute 77

4.2.9 The Octopus (Part 2) 77

4.2.10 The Head Lift 79

4.2.11 The Fish 79

4.2.12 The Lizard 80

4.2.13 Hand to Foot 80

4.2.14 Hand to Knee 81

4.2.15 The Hinge 81

4.2.16 The Bracket 82

4.2.17 Lower Body Rotation 82

4.2.18 Upper Body Rotation 83

4.2.19 The Tadpole Who Turns into a Frog 84

4.2.20 The Drunken Frog 85

4.2.21 The Alligator 85

4.2.22 The Commando Crawl 86

4.2.23 The Cat 86

4.2.24 Three-Point Crawling on Hands and Knees 88

4.2.25 Cross-Pattern Crawling on Hands and Knees 89

4.3 Additional Optional Exercises for Integration of Left and Right 89

4.3.1 Differentiated Angels in the Snow 90

4.3.2 Finger Exercises 92

4.4 Post Script 93

References 93

Resources 95

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Sally Goddard Blythe is a Consultant in Neuro-Developmental Education and Director of The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP). She is the author of several books and published papers on child development and neuro-developmental factors in specific learning difficulties, including, Reflexes, Learning and Behaviour (2002), The Well Balanced Child (2003), What Babies and Children Really Need (2008), Attention, Balance and Coordination - the A.B.C. of Learning Success (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009) and The Genius of Natural Childhood (2011).

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"Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning is not so much bedtime reading for the lay person, as it is a beautifully produced screening and intervention manual for practitioners and professionals working with young children – a substantially revised and expanded edition of the long-established and rigorously evaluated INPP training manual." Mother Magazine 2012

This book clearly identifies the importance of movement as a cornerstone for learning.  In particular, it highlights how traces of early reflexes, which are usually subsumed into more complex and voluntary movement, can impact a child’s ability to carry out activities which crucially support a child’s ability to read, write, focus and pay attention.

The tests and exercises are not a diagnostic tool, but with training are to be used as a screening device to help teachers understand further the difficulties of some children in their school, and to re-evaluate their needs and provide an effective intervention programme. The programme identified in the book should, in my view, be part of all teacher training.
Maria Robinson, Independent Adviser in Early Years Development

Sally Goddard-Blythe has worked for many years to help young children respond to the demanding tasks of school: speaking and understanding speech, reading and writing, and the logic of using tools. All depend on moving with balance and versatility, and with clear sight and hearing. In this rich manual for screening and development of motor awareness, teachers and other professionals working with children aged 4 to 7 and upward, are offered the fruit of Sally Goddard Blythe’s four decades of research and practice. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning will help to give every child confidence and pleasure in moving to learn.
Colwyn Trevarthen, Professor Emeritus of Child Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Edinburgh

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