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Low Voltage Electron Microscopy: Principles and Applications

David C. Bell (Editor), Natasha Erdman (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-97111-5
224 pages
February 2013
Low Voltage Electron Microscopy: Principles and Applications (111997111X) cover image

Part of the Wiley-Royal Microscopical Society Series, this book discusses the rapidly developing cutting-edge field of low-voltage microscopy, a field that has only recently emerged due to the rapid developments in the electron optics design and image processing.

It serves as a guide for current and new microscopists and materials scientists who are active in the field of nanotechnology, and presents applications in nanotechnology and research of surface-related phenomena, allowing researches to observe materials as never before.

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List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

1 Introduction to the Theory and Advantages of Low Voltage Electron Microscopy 1
David C. Bell and Natasha Erdman

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Historical Perspective 2

1.3 Beam Interaction with Specimen—Elastic and Inelastic Scattering 3

1.4 Instrument Configuration 11

1.5 Influence of Electron Optics Aberrations at Low Voltages 12

1.6 SEM Imaging at Low Voltages 16

1.7 TEM/STEM Imaging and Analysis at Low Voltages 26

1.8 Conclusion 27

References 28

2 SEM Instrumentation Developments for Low kV Imaging and Microanalysis 31
Natasha Erdman and David C. Bell

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 The Electron Source 33

2.3 SEM Column Design Considerations 36

2.4 Beam Deceleration 41

2.5 Novel Detector Options and Energy Filters 43

2.6 Low Voltage STEM in SEM 48

2.7 Aberration Correction in SEM 50

2.8 Conclusions 53

References 53

3 Extreme High-Resolution (XHR) SEM Using a Beam Monochromator 57
Richard J. Young, Gerard N.A. van Veen, Alexander Henstra and Lubomir Tuma

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Limitations in Low Voltage SEM Performance 58

3.3 Beam Monochromator Design and Implementation 59

3.4 XHR Systems and Applications 63

3.5 Conclusions 69

Acknowledgements 70

References 70

4 The Application of Low-Voltage SEM—From Nanotechnology to Biological Research 73
Natasha Erdman and David C. Bell

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Specimen Preparation Considerations 74

4.3 Nanomaterials Applications 76

4.4 Beam Sensitive Materials 84

4.5 Semiconductor Materials 85

4.6 Biological Specimens 87

4.7 Low-Voltage Microanalysis 91

4.8 Conclusions 92

References 93

5 Low Voltage High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy 97
David C. Bell

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 So How Low is Low? 99

5.3 The Effect of Chromatic Aberration and Chromatic Aberration Correction 100

5.4 The Electron Monochromator 103

5.5 Theoretical Tradeoffs of Low kV Imaging 105

5.6 Our Experience at 40 keV LV-HREM 109

5.7 Examples of LV-HREM Imaging 110

5.8 Conclusions 114

References 116

6 Gentle STEM of Single Atoms: Low keV Imaging and Analysis at Ultimate Detection Limits 119
Ondrej L. Krivanek, Wu Zhou, Matthew F. Chisholm, Juan Carlos Idrobo, Tracy C. Lovejoy, Quentin M. Ramasse and Niklas Dellby

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Optimizing STEM Resolution and Probe Current at Low Primary Energies 121

6.3 STEM Image Formation 128

6.4 Gentle STEM Applications 135

6.5 Discussion 154

6.6 Conclusion 156

Acknowledgements 157

References 157

7 Low Voltage Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Oxide Interfaces 163
Robert Klie

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Methods and Instrumentation 166

7.3 Low Voltage Imaging and Spectroscopy 168

7.4 Summary 180

Acknowledgements 180

References 180

8 What’s Next? The Future Directions in Low Voltage Electron Microscopy 185
David C. Bell and Natasha Erdman

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Unique Low Voltage SEM and TEM Instruments 186

8.3 Cameras, Detectors, and Other Accessories 192

8.4 Conclusions 198

References 199

Index 201

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