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Transformation of Biomass: Theory to Practice

ISBN: 978-1-119-97327-0
368 pages
September 2014
Transformation of Biomass: Theory to Practice (1119973279) cover image

Description

Biomass is a key resource for meeting the energy and material demands of mankind in the future. As a result, businesses and technologies are developing around biomass processing and its applications.

Transformation of Biomass: Theory to Practice explores the modern applications of biomass and bio-based residues for the generation of energy, heat and chemical products. The first chapter presents readers with a broad overview of biomass and its composition, conversion routes and products. The following chapters deal with specific technologies, including anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and gasification, as well as hydrothermal and supercritical conversion. Each chapter details current practises, recent developments, business case models and comprehensive analysis of the problems associated with each approach, and how to optimize them.

Topics covered include:

  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Reactor design
  • Pyrolysis
  • Catalysis in biomass transformation
  • Engines for combined heat and power
  • Influence of feedstocks on performance and products
  • Bio-hydrogen from biomass
  • Analysis of bio-oils
  • Numerical simulation and formal kinetic parameters evaluation
  • Business case development

This textbook will provide students, researchers and industry professionals with a practical and accessible guide to the essential skills required to advance in the field of bioenergy.

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Table of Contents

About the Editor xiii

List of Contributors xv

Preface xvii

1 Biomass, Conversion Routes and Products – An Overview 1
K.K. Pant and Pravakar Mohanty

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Features of the Different Generations of Biomass 2

1.3 Analysis of Biomass 5

1.3.1 Proximate and Ultimate Analysis of Biomass 6

1.3.2 Inorganic Minerals’ Ash Content and Properties 8

1.4 Biomass Conversion Routes 9

1.4.1 Pyrolysis 9

1.5 Bio-Oil Characteristics and Biochar 15

1.6 Scope of Pyrolysis Process Control and Yield Ranges 16

1.6.1 Moisture Content 18

1.6.2 Feed Particle Size 18

1.6.3 Effect of Temperature on Product Distribution 18

1.6.4 Solid Residence Time 18

1.6.5 Gas Environment 18

1.6.6 Effect of Pressure on Product Distribution 19

1.7 Catalytic Bio-Oil Upgradation 19

1.8 Bio-Oil Reforming 22

1.9 Sub and Supercritical Water Hydrolysis and Gasification 23

1.9.1 Biochemical Conversion Routes 24

1.9.2 Microorganisms for Fermentation 25

1.9.3 Integrating the Bioprocess 25

Questions 25

References 28

2 Anaerobic Digestion 31
Lynsey Melville, Andreas Weger, Sonja Wiesgickl and Matthias Franke

2.1 Introduction 31

2.1.1 Microbiology of Anaerobic Digestion 31

2.1.2 Key Phases 32

2.1.3 Influence Factors on the AD 34

2.1.4 Sources of Biomass Utilised in AD 36

2.1.5 Characteristics of Biomass 39

2.1.6 Pre-Treatment of Biomass 41

2.1.7 Products of Anaerobic Digestion 45

2.1.8 Anaerobic Treatment Technology 48

Questions 54

References 54

3 Reactor Design and Its Impact on Performance and Products 61
Yassir T. Makkawi

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Thermochemical Conversion Reactors 62

3.2.1 Types of Reactors 62

3.3 Design Considerations 63

3.3.1 Hydrodynamics 64

3.3.2 Residence Time 69

3.3.3 Distributor Plate and Cyclone 72

3.3.4 Heat Transfer Mechanisms 73

3.3.5 Biomass Conversion Efficiency 75

3.4 Reactions and their Impact on the Products 76

3.4.1 Devolatization and Pyrolysis 76

3.4.2 Gasification 77

3.5 Mass and Energy Balance 79

3.5.1 Mass Balance 79

3.5.2 Energy Balance 80

3.6 Reactor Sizing and Configuration 82

3.7 Reactor Performance and Products 85

3.7.1 Moving Beds 85

3.7.2 Fluidized Bed (FB) 87

3.8 New Reactor Design and Performance 92

Nomenclature 94

Greek Symbols 95

Questions 95

References 95

4 Pyrolysis 99
Andreas Hornung

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 How Pyrolysis Reactors Differ 101

4.3 Fast Pyrolysis 102

4.4 Fast Pyrolysis Reactors 102

4.4.1 Bubbling Fluid Bed Reactor 102

4.4.2 Circulating Fluid Bed Reactor 102

4.4.3 Ablative Pyrolysis Reactor 102

4.4.4 Twin Screw Reactor – Mechanical Fluidised Bed 103

4.4.5 Rotating Cone 103

4.5 Intermediate Pyrolysis 103

4.5.1 Principles 103

4.5.2 Process Technology 104

4.6 Slow Pyrolysis 105

4.6.1 Principles 106

4.6.2 Process Technology 106

4.7 Comparison of Different Pyrolysis Techniques 106

4.8 Future Directions 107

4.9 Pyrolysis in Application 107

4.9.1 Haloclean Pyrolysis and Gasification of Straw 107

4.10 Pyrolysis of Low Grade Biomass Using the Pyroformer Technology 109

Questions 110

References 110

Books and Reviews 112

5 Catalysis in Biomass Transformation 113
James O. Titiloye

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Biomass, Biofuels and Catalysis 114

5.3 Biomass Transformation Examples 116

5.4 Hydrogen Production 120

5.5 Catalytic Barriers and Challenges in Transformation 120

Questions 120

References 120

Appendix 5.A Catalytic Reforming of Brewers Spent Grain 125
Asad Mahmood and Andreas Hornung

5.A.1 Biomass Characterisation 125

5.A.2 Permanent Gas Analysis 127

5.A.3 Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming without Steam 127

5.A.4 Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming with Steam 130

Reference 131

6 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass 133
S. Dasappa

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 The Thermochemical Conversion Process 136

6.2.1 Pyrolysis 136

6.3 Combustion 139

6.4 Gasification 140

6.4.1 Updraft or Counter-Current Gasifier 141

6.4.2 Downdraft or Co-Current Gasifiers 142

6.5 Historical Perspective on Gasification Technology 143

6.5.1 Pre-1980 143

6.5.2 Post-1980 144

6.6 Gasification Technology 145

6.6.1 Principles of Reactor Design 145

6.6.2 Two Competing Designs 146

6.7 Open-Top Dual Air Entry Reaction Design – the IISc’s Invention 149

6.8 Technology Package 151

6.8.1 Typical Performance of a Power Generation Package 151

6.8.2 Engine and Generator Performance 155

Questions 156

References 157

7 Engines for Combined Heat and Power 159
Miloud Ouadi, Yang Yang and Andreas Hornung

7.1 Spark-Ignited Gas Engines and Syngas 159

7.2 Dual-Fuel Engines and Biofuels 160

7.3 Advanced Systems: Biowaste Derived Pyrolysis Oils for Diesel Engine Application 161

7.3.1 Important Parameters to Qualify the Oil as Fuel 162

7.4 Advanced CHP Application: Dual-Fuel Engine Application for CHP Using Pyrolysis Oil and Pyrolysis Gas from Deinking-Sludge 166

7.4.1 Fuel Properties: Deinking Sludge Pyrolysis Oil, Biodiesel, Blends and Fossil Diesel 167

7.4.2 Combustion Characteristics 169

7.4.3 Conclusions 170

Questions 171

References 171

8 Hydrothermal Liquefaction – Upgrading 175
Ursel Hornung, Andrea Kruse and Gökeçn Akgül

8.1 Introduction 175

8.1.1 Product Properties 176

8.2 Chemistry of Hydrothermal Liquefaction 177

8.3 Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Carbohydrates 177

8.4 Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignin 179

8.5 Technical Application 182

8.6 Conclusion 183

Questions 183

References 183

9 Supercritical Conversion of Biomass 189
Gökçen Akgül

9.1 Introduction 189

9.2 Supercritical Water Gasification 190

9.3 Supercritical Water Oxidation 193

9.4 Water–Gas Shift Reaction under the Supercritical Conditions 193

9.5 Catalysts in the Supercritical Processes 194

9.5.1 Alkali Salts in the Supercritical Water 195

9.6 The Solubilities of Gases in the Supercritical Water 195

9.7 Fugacities of Gases in the Supercritical Water 196

9.8 Mechanism of the Supercritical Water Gasification 197

9.9 Corrosion in the Supercritical Water 197

9.10 Advantages of the Supercritical Conversion of Biomass 198

9.11 Conclusion 199

Questions 199

References 199

10 Influence of Feedstocks on Performance and Products of Processes 203
Andreas Hornung

10.1 Humidity of Feedstocks 206

10.2 Heteroatoms in Feedstocks 206

References 207

11 Integrated Processes Including Intermediate Pyrolysis 209
Andreas Hornung

11.1 Coupling of Anaerobic Digestion, Pyrolysis and Gasification 210

11.2 Intermediate Pyrolysis, CHP in Combination with Combustion 211

11.3 Integration of Intermediate Pyrolysis with Anaerobic Digestion and CHP 212

11.4 Pyrolysis Reforming 212

11.5 The BIOBATTERY 212

11.6 Pyrolysis BAF Application 214

11.7 Birmingham 2026 215

11.8 Conclusion 215

References 216

12 Bio-Hydrogen from Biomass 217
Andreas Hornung

12.1 World Hydrogen Production 217

12.2 Bio-hydrogen 217

12.3 Routes to Hydrogen 219

12.3.1 Steam Reforming 219

12.3.2 Reforming 219

12.3.3 Water Electrolysis 223

12.3.4 Gasification 223

12.3.5 Fermentation 223

12.4 Costs of Hydrogen 223

12.5 Conclusion 224

References 224

Further Reading 225

13 Analysis of Bio-Oils 227
Dietrich Meier and Michael Windt

13.1 Definition 227

13.2 Introduction 227

13.3 General Aspects 228

13.3.1 Before Analysis 228

13.3.2 Significance of Bio-Oil Analysis 228

13.3.3 Post-Processing Reactions 229

13.3.4 Overall Composition 229

13.4 Whole Oil Analyses 230

13.4.1 Gas Chromatography 230

13.4.2 NMR 237

13.4.3 FTIR 238

13.4.4 SEC 239

13.5 Fractionation Techniques 241

13.5.1 Addition of Water 241

13.5.2 Removal of Water (Lyophilization) 243

13.5.3 Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) 246

13.5.4 Solvent Partition 249

13.5.5 Distillation 253

Questions 254

References 254

14 Formal Kinetic Parameters – Problems and Solutions in Deriving Proper Values 257
Neeranuch Phusunti and Andreas Hornung

14.1 Introduction 257

14.2 Chemical Kinetics on Thermal Decomposition of Biomass 259

14.3 Kinetic Evaluation Methods 261

14.4 Experimental Kinetic Analysis Techniques 264

14.5 Complex Reaction 264

14.6 Variation in Kinetic Parameters 267

14.6.1 Kinetic Compensation Effect 267

14.6.2 Thermal Lag 268

14.6.3 Influence of Experimental Conditions 269

14.6.4 Computational Methods 270

14.7 Case Study: Kinetic Analysis of Lignocellulosic Derived Materials under Isothermal Conditions 271

14.7.1 Instrument and Operating Conditions 271

14.7.2 Kinetic Evaluation Procedure 272

14.7.3 Formal Kinetic Parameters and Some Technical Applications 275

14.8 Conclusion 278

Nomenclature 279

Subscripts 280

Miscellaneous 280

Questions 280

References 280

15 Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Degradation of Biomass –Approaches and Simplifications 285
István Marsi

15.1 Introduction 285

15.2 Kinetic Schemes Applied in Complex Models 288

15.2.1 One-Step Global Models 289

15.2.2 Competing Models 289

15.2.3 Parallel Reaction Models 290

15.2.4 The Broido–Shafizadeh Mechanism 291

15.2.5 The Koufopanos Mechanism 292

15.2.6 The Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) 293

15.3 Thermal Aspects of Biomass Degradation Modeling 294

15.3.1 Single-Particle Models 295

15.3.2 Particles in Bed Models 298

15.4 Conclusion 299

Questions 299

Nomenclature 299

Symbols 299

Greek 300

Indices 300

References 300

16 Business Case Development 305
Sudhakar Sagi

16.1 Introduction 305

16.2 Biomass for Power Generation and CHP 307

16.3 Business Perspective 308

16.3.1 Background 310

16.4 The Role of Business Models 310

16.4.1 The Market Map Framework 311

16.5 Financial Model Based on Intermediate Pyrolysis Technology 313

16.5.1 Pelletisation Process 314

16.5.2 Pyrolysis Unit 315

References 318

17 Production of Biochar and Activated Carbon via Intermediate Pyrolysis – Recent Studies for Non-Woody Biomass 321
Andreas Hornung and Elisabeth Schröder

17.1 Biochar 321

17.1.1 Introduction 321

17.1.2 Biochar and its Application in the Field 322

References 325

Further Reading 326

17.2 Activated Carbon 327

17.2.1 Introduction 327

17.2.2 Biomass Properties 327

17.2.3 Activation of Biochar 328

17.2.4 Formation of Granular Activated Carbon 334

References 337

Further Reading 337

Index 339

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