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LTE Advanced: 3GPP Solution for IMT-Advanced

Harri Holma (Editor), Antti Toskala (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-97405-5
248 pages
October 2012
LTE Advanced: 3GPP Solution for IMT-Advanced (1119974054) cover image

From the editors of the highly successful LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-Advanced, this new book examines the main technical enhancements brought by LTE-Advanced, thoroughly covering 3GPP Release 10 specifications and the main items in Release 11. Using illustrations, graphs and real-life scenarios, the authors systematically lead readers through this cutting-edge topic to provide an outlook on existing technologies as well as possible future developments.

The book is structured to follow the main technical areas that will be enhanced by the LTE-Advanced specifications. The main topics covered include: Carrier Aggregation; Multiantenna MIMO Transmission, Heterogeneous Networks; Coordinated Multipoint Transmission (CoMP); Relay nodes; 3GPP milestones and IMT-Advanced process in ITU-R;  and LTE-Advanced Performance Evaluation.

Key features:

  • Leading author and editor team bring their expertise to the next generation of LTE technology
  • Includes tables, figures and plots illustrating the concepts or simulation results, to aid understanding of the topic, and enabling readers to be ahead of the technological advances
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List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

List of Abbreviations xix

1 Introduction 1
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Radio Technology Convergence Towards LTE 1

1.3 LTE Capabilities 3

1.4 Underlying Technology Evolution 4

1.5 Traffic Growth 4

1.6 LTE-Advanced Schedule 6

1.7 LTE-Advanced Overview 6

1.8 Summary 7

2 LTE-Advanced Standardization 8
Antti Toskala

2.1 Introduction 8

2.2 LTE-Advanced and IMT-Advanced 8

2.3 LTE-Advanced Requirements 9

2.4 LTE-Advanced Study and Specification Phases 10

2.5 Further LTE-Advanced 3GPP Releases 11

2.6 LTE-Advanced Specifications 11

2.7 Conclusions 12

References 12

3 LTE Release 8 and 9 Overview 14
Antti Toskala

3.1 Introduction 14

3.2 Physical Layer 14

3.3 Architecture 22

3.4 Protocols 23

3.5 EPC and IMS 26

3.6 UE Capability and Differences in Release 8 and 9 27

3.7 Conclusions 28

References 29

4 Downlink Carrier Aggregation 30
Mieszko Chmiel and Antti Toskala

4.1 Introduction 30

4.2 Carrier Aggregation Principle 30

4.3 Protocol Impact from Carrier Aggregation 33

4.4 Physical Layer Impact from Carrier Aggregation 38

4.5 Performance 42

4.6 Band Combinations for Carrier Aggregation 46

4.7 Conclusions 48

Reference 49

5 Uplink Carrier Aggregation 50
Jari Lindholm, Claudio Rosa, Hua Wang and Antti Toskala

5.1 Introduction 50

5.2 Uplink Carrier Aggregation Principle 50

5.3 Protocol Impacts from Uplink Carrier Aggregation 51

5.4 Physical Layer Impact from Uplink Carrier Aggregation 52

5.5 Performance 56

5.6 Band Combinations for Carrier Aggregation 61

5.7 Conclusions 62

References 62

6 Downlink MIMO 63
Timo Lunttila, Peter Skov and Antti Toskala

6.1 Introduction 63

6.2 Downlink MIMO Enhancements Overview 63

6.3 Protocol Impact from Downlink MIMO Enhancements 64

6.4 Physical Layer Impact from Downlink MIMO 65

6.5 Performance 70

6.6 Conclusions 73

References 74

7 Uplink MIMO 75
Timo Lunttila, Kari Hooli, YuYu Yan and Antti Toskala

7.1 Introduction 75

7.2 Uplink MIMO Enhancements Overview 75

7.3 Protocol Impacts from Uplink MIMO 76

7.4 Physical Layer Impacts from Uplink MIMO 77

7.4.1 Uplink Reference Signal Structure 77

7.4.2 MIMO Transmission for Uplink Data 79

7.4.3 MIMO Transmission for Uplink Control Signalling 82

7.4.4 Multi-User MIMO Transmission in the Uplink 82

7.5 Performance 83

7.6 Conclusions 84

References 85

8 Heterogeneous Networks 86
Harri Holma, Patrick Marsch and Klaus Pedersen

8.1 Introduction 86

8.2 Base Station Classes 87

8.3 Traffic Steering and Mobility Management 89

8.3.1 Traffic Steering and Mobility Management in Idle State 90

8.3.2 Traffic Steering and Mobility Management in the Connected State 91

8.3.3 Traffic Steering and Mobility Management with Femto Cells 91

8.3.4 WiFi Offloading 92

8.4 Interference Management 94

8.4.1 Static Interference Avoidance through Frequency Reuse Patterns 96

8.4.2 Dynamic Interference Coordination in the Frequency Domain 97

8.4.3 Dynamic Interference Coordination in the Time Domain 98

8.4.4 Dynamic Interference Coordination in the Power Domain 101

8.5 Performance Results 101

8.5.1 Macro and Outdoor Pico Scenarios 102

8.5.2 Macro and Femto Scenarios 105

8.6 Local IP Access (LIPA) 107

8.7 Summary 108

References 108

9 Relays 110
Harri Holma, Bernhard Raaf and Simone Redana

9.1 Introduction 110

9.2 General Overview 111

9.3 Physical Layer 112

9.3.1 Inband and Outband Relays 112

9.3.2 Sub-frames 113

9.3.3 Retransmissions 115

9.3.4 Relays Compared to Repeaters 116

9.3.5 Relays in TD-LTE 118

9.4 Architecture and Protocols 118

9.4.1 Sub-frame Configuration with Relay Nodes 118

9.4.2 Bearer Usage with Relay Nodes 119

9.4.3 Packet Header Structure in the Relay Interface 120

9.4.4 Attach Procedure 121

9.4.5 Handovers 121

9.4.6 Autonomous Neighbour Relations 122

9.5 Radio Resource Management 124

9.6 Coverage and Capacity 125

9.6.1 Coverage Gain 126

9.6.2 User Throughput Gains 128

9.6.3 Cost Analysis 129

9.7 Relay Enhancements 130

9.8 Summary 132

References 132

10 Self-Organizing Networks (SON) 135
Cinzia Sartori and Harri Holma

10.1 Introduction 135

10.2 SON Roadmap in 3GPP Releases 135

10.3 Self-Optimization 137

10.3.1 Mobility Robustness Optimization 137

10.3.2 Mobility Load Balancing 142

10.3.3 Minimization of Drive Tests 142

10.3.4 MDT Management and Reporting 144

10.3.5 Energy Savings 145

10.3.6 eNodeB Overlay 146

10.3.7 Capacity-Limited Network 147

10.3.8 Capacity and Coverage Optimization 148

10.4 Self-Healing 150

10.4.1 Cell Outage Compensation 150

10.5 SON Features in 3GPP Release 11 151

10.6 Summary 151

References 152

11 Performance Evaluation 153
Harri Holma and Klaus Pedersen

11.1 Introduction 153

11.2 LTE-Advanced Targets 154

11.2.1 ITU Evaluation Environments 155

11.3 LTE-Advanced Performance Evaluation 156

11.3.1 Peak Data Rates 156

11.3.2 UE Categories 157

11.3.3 ITU Efficiency Evaluation 158

11.3.4 3GPP Efficiency Evaluation 160

11.4 Network Capacity and Coverage 163

11.5 Summary 165

References 165

12 Release 11 and Outlook Towards Release 12 166
Timo Lunttila, Rapeepat Ratasuk, Jun Tan, Amitava Ghosh and Antti Toskala

12.1 Introduction 166

12.2 Release 11 LTE-Advanced Content 166

12.3 Advanced LTE UE Receiver 168

12.3.1 Overview of MMSE-MRC and MMSE-IRC Methods 169

12.3.2 Performance of UE Receiver using IRC and its Comparison

to MRC Receiver for Various DL Transmit Modes 170

12.4 Machine Type Communications 172

12.5 Carrier Aggregation Enhancements 177

12.6 Enhanced Downlink Control Channel 179

12.7 Release 12 LTE-Advanced Outlook 181

12.8 Conclusions 183

References 183

13 Coordinated Multipoint Transmission and Reception 184
Harri Holma, Kari Hooli, Pasi Kinnunen, Troels Kolding, PatrickMarsch and Xiaoyi Wang

13.1 Introduction 184

13.2 CoMP Concept 184

13.3 Radio Network Architecture Options 187

13.4 Downlink CoMP Transmission 190

13.4.1 Enablers for Downlink CoMP in 3GPP 191

13.4.2 Signal Processing and RRM for CoMP 192

13.4.3 Other Implementation Aspects 194

13.5 Uplink CoMP Reception 194

13.6 Downlink CoMP Gains 198

13.7 Uplink CoMP Gains 201

13.8 CoMP Field Trials 204

13.9 Summary 205

References 205

14 HSPA Evolution 206
Harri Holma and Karri Ranta-aho

14.1 Introduction 206

14.2 Multicarrier Evolution 206

14.3 Multiantenna Evolution 208

14.4 Multiflow Transmission 211

14.5 Small Packet Efficiency 213

14.6 Voice Evolution 215

14.6.1 Adaptive Multirate Wideband (AMR-WB) Voice Codec 215

14.6.2 Voice Over IP (VoIP) 215

14.6.3 CS Voice Over HSPA (CSoHSPA) 215

14.6.4 Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SR-VCC) 215

14.7 Advanced Receivers 215

14.7.1 Advanced UE Receivers 215

14.7.2 Advanced NodeB Receivers 216

14.8 Flat Architecture 217

14.9 LTE Interworking 218

14.10 Summary 218

References 219

Index 221

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Harri Holma and Antti Toskala are both with Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN), Finland,  working on cutting edge technologies for mobile communications today.  They are actively involved with 3GPP Standardisation and product development.

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