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Smart Grid: Communication-Enabled Intelligence for the Electric Power Grid

ISBN: 978-1-119-97580-9
570 pages
March 2014, Wiley-IEEE Press
Smart Grid: Communication-Enabled Intelligence for the Electric Power Grid (1119975808) cover image
This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory.

Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the "traditional" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication networking. It shows the complexity and operational requirements of the evolving power grid, the so-called "smart grid," to the communication networking engineer; and similarly, it shows the complexity and operational requirements for communications to the power systems engineer.

The book is divided into three parts. Part One discusses the basic operation of the electric power grid, covering fundamental knowledge that is assumed in Parts Two and Three. Part Two introduces communications and networking, which are critical enablers for the smart grid. It also considers how communication and networking will evolve as technology develops. This lays the foundation for Part Three, which utilizes communication within the power grid. Part Three draws heavily upon both the embedded intelligence within the power grid and current research, anticipating how and where computational intelligence will be implemented within the smart grid. Each part is divided into chapters and each chapter has a set of questions useful for exercising the readers' understanding of the material in that chapter.

Key Features:

  • Bridges the gap between power systems and communications experts
  • Addresses the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will likely evolve tomorrow
  • Explores the smart grid from the perspective of traditional power systems as well as from communications
  • Discusses power systems, communications, and machine learning that all define the smart grid
  • It introduces the new field of power system information theory
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About the Author xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xxiii

Acronyms xxv

Part One ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS: THE MAIN COMPONENT

1 Introduction to Power Systems Before Smart Grid 3

1.1 Overview 3

1.2 Yesterday’s Grid 8

1.3 Fundamentals of Electric Power 20

1.4 Case Studies: Postmortem Analysis of Blackouts 34

1.5 Drivers Toward the Smart Grid 42

1.6 Goals of the Smart Grid 43

1.7 A Few Words on Standards 46

1.8 From Energy and Information to Smart Grid and Communications 47

1.9 Summary 48

1.10 Exercises 50

2 Generation 55

2.1 Introduction to Generation 55

2.2 Centralized Generation 57

2.3 Management and Control: Introducing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems 73

2.4 Energy Storage 81

2.5 Summary 85

2.6 Exercises 86

3 Transmission 89

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Basic Power Grid Components 93

3.3 Classical Power Grid Analytical Techniques 98

3.4 Transmission Challenges 110

3.5 Wireless Power Transmission 118

3.6 Summary 118

3.7 Exercises 119

4 Distribution 121

4.1 Introduction 121

4.2 Protection Techniques 138

4.3 Conservation Voltage Reduction 145

4.4 Distribution Line Carrier 146

4.5 Summary 147

4.6 Exercises 147

5 Consumption 151

5.1 Introduction 151

5.2 Loads 152

5.3 Variability in Consumption 168

5.4 The Consumer Perspective 169

5.5 Visibility 171

5.6 Flexibility for the Consumer 176

5.7 Summary 179

5.8 Exercises 180

Part Two COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING: THE ENABLER

6 What is Smart Grid Communication? 185

6.1 Introduction 185

6.2 Energy and Information 192

6.3 System View 198

6.4 Power System Information Theory 199

6.5 Communication Architecture 216

6.6 Wireless Communication Introduction 224

6.7 Summary 232

6.8 Exercises 233

7 Demand-Response and the Advanced Metering Infrastructure 235

7.1 Introduction 235

7.2 Demand-Response 236

7.3 Advanced Metering Infrastructure 239

7.4 IEEE 802.15.4, 6LoWPAN, ROLL, and RPL 244

7.5 IEEE 802.11 255

7.6 Summary 256

7.7 Exercises 257

8 Distributed Generation and Transmission 259

8.1 Introduction 259

8.2 Distributed Generation 260

8.3 The Smart Power Transmission System 276

8.4 Wireless Power Transmission 278

8.5 Wide-Area Monitoring 281

8.6 Networked Control 294

8.7 Summary 298

8.8 Exercises 298

9 Distribution Automation 301

9.1 Introduction 301

9.2 Protection Coordination Utilizing Distribution Automation 306

9.3 Self-healing, Communication, and Distribution Automation 309

9.4 Summary 329

9.5 Exercises 329

10 Standards Overview 333

10.1 Introduction 333

10.2 National Institute of Standards and Technology 334

10.3 International Electrotechnical Commission 335

10.4 International Council on Large Electric Systems 339

10.5 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 339

10.6 American National Standards Institute 343

10.7 International Telecommunication Union 347

10.8 Electric Power Research Institute 348

10.9 Other Standardization-Related Activities 349

10.10 Summary 353

10.11 Exercises 354

Part Three EMBEDDED AND DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENCE FOR A SMARTER GRID: THE ULTIMATE GOAL

11 Machine Intelligence in the Grid 359

11.1 Introduction 359

11.2 Machine Intelligence and Communication 360

11.3 Computing Models for Smart Grid 364

11.4 Machine Intelligence in the Grid 373

11.5 Machine-to-Machine Communication in Smart Grid 383

11.6 Summary 385

11.7 Exercises 386

12 State Estimation and Stability 389

12.1 Introduction 389

12.2 Networked Control 396

12.3 State Estimation 397

12.4 Distributed State Estimation 399

12.5 Stability 402

12.6 Stability and High-Penetration Distributed Generation 410

12.7 Summary 411

12.8 Exercises 412

13 Synchrophasor Applications 415

13.1 Introduction 415

13.2 Synchrophasors 416

13.3 Phasor Measurement Unit 426

13.4 Networking Synchrophasor Information 427

13.5 Synchrophasor Applications 430

13.6 Summary 431

13.7 Exercises 432

14 Power System Electronics 435

14.1 Introduction 435

14.2 Power System Electronics 437

14.3 Power Electronic Transformer 443

14.4 Protection Devices and Current Limiters 452

14.5 Superconducting Technologies 453

14.6 Summary 460

14.7 Exercises 461

15 Future of the Smart Grid 465

15.1 Introduction 465

15.2 Geomagnetic Storms as Generators 468

15.3 Future Microgrids 472

15.4 Nanoscale Communication Networks 476

15.5 Emerging Technologies 480

15.6 Near-Space Power Generation 482

15.7 Summary 484

15.8 Exercises 487

Appendix: Smart Grid Simulation Tools 489

References 493

Index 507

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Dr Stephen F. Bush, General Electric Global Research, USA
Stephen received the B.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, the M.S. degree in computer science from Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Kansas, Lawrence.  He is currently a Researcher at General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY. Before joining GE Global Research, he was a Researcher at the Information and Telecommunications Technologies Center (ITTC), University of Kansas. He has been the Principal Investigator for many DARPA and Lockheed Martin sponsored research projects including: Active Networking (DARPA/ITO), Information Assurance and Survivability Engineering Tools (DARPA/ISO), Fault Tolerant Networking (DARPA/ATO), and most recently, Connectionless Networks (DARPA/ATO), an energy aware sensor network project.

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