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Asymmetric Synthesis of Natural Products, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-97668-4
322 pages
August 2012
Asymmetric Synthesis of Natural Products, 2nd Edition (1119976685) cover image
Asymmetric Synthesis of Natural Products, 2nd Edition introduces students to this rapidly growing field of organic chemistry. The initial chapters present the foundations of asymmetric synthesis, including the theory and applications of individual asymmetric reactions. This is followed by chapters on each of the major individual classes of natural products; their structures, biosynthesis and interrelationships as well as examples of asymmetric syntheses and the practical value of these compounds. Natural product classes covered include carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids, polyketides, isoprenoids, shikamic acid derivatives and alkaloids.

For this second edition the text has been thoroughly updated and expanded, and includes new discussions and examples covering atom and redox economies, practical aspects and environmental awareness. Organocatalysis has emerged completely in the last ten years, and has been fully integrated into this new edition.

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List of Common Abbreviations ix

Preface to the First Edition xiii

Preface to the Second Edition xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Some properties of natural products 4

1.2 Natural products as drugs 7

1.3 Structures of natural products 10

1.4 Asymmetric synthesis of natural products 15

1.5 Synthetic organic chemistry 17

References 202

2 Chirality, Topology, and Asymmetric Synthesis 23

2.1 The need for enantiopure compounds 34

2.2 Determination of enantiomeric purity 38

2.3 Chirality and thermodynamic principles of asymmetric induction 42

2.4 Methods for obtaining chiral compounds 44

References 523

3 Asymmetric Synthesis 55

3.1 Allylic strain 55

3.2 Reactions of the carbonyl group 59

3.2.1 Nucleophilic additions on the carbonyl carbon 59

3.2.2 Reactions at the

3.2.3 Reactions at the

3.2.4 Reactions of olefins 99

3.3 Oxidation 99

3.3.1 Asymmetric dihydroxylation 100

3.3.2 Asymmetric epoxidation 103

References 108

4 Sugars 115

4.1 Monosaccharides 116

4.1.1 Aldoses and ketoses 116

4.1.2 Deoxy sugars 122

4.1.3 Amino sugars 122

4.1.4 Sugar alcohols 125

4.1.5 Acidic sugars 125

4.2 Polysaccharides 127

4.3 Glycoproteins and proteoglycans 131

4.4 Glycolipids 134

4.5 Sugar antibiotics 134

4.6 Cyclitols 138

References 142

5 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 145

5.1 Amino acids 145

5.2 Peptides and proteins 149

5.3 Enzymes and receptors 153

5.4 Chemical modifications of peptides 154

5.5 Biosynthesis of amino acids 156

5.6 Asymmetric synthesis of amino acids 160

5.6.1 α-Alkylation 162

5.6.2 Amination of ester enolates 167

5.6.3 Catalytic hydrogenation 169

5.6.4 Miscellaneous 170

5.6.5 Pepstatins 171

References 173

6 Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids 175

References 184

7 Polyketides 187

7.1 Biosynthesis 187

7.2 Fatty acids 190

7.2.1 Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes 191

7.2.2 Sphingolipids 196

7.3 Polypropionates 200

7.3.1 Polyether antibiotics 200

7.3.2 Macrolides 201

7.3.3 Spiroketals 209

7.4 Aromatic polyketides 213

References 215

8 Terpenes 219

8.1 Terpenes 221

8.1.1 Monoterpenes 221

8.1.2 Sesquiterpenes 223

8.1.3 Diterpenes 228

8.1.4 Higher Terpenes 230

8.2 Carotenoids 234

8.3 Steroids 235

8.3.1 Biosynthesis of steroids 240

8.3.2 Asymmetric synthesis of steroids 242

References 244

9 Shikimic Acid Derivatives 247

9.1 Case synthesis: Oseltamivir 251

References 254

10 Alkaloids 257

10.1 Heterocyclic alkaloids 258

10.1.1 Indole alkaloids 259

10.1.2 Pyrrolidine and tropane alkaloids 271

10.1.3 Quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids 273

10.1.4 Izidine alkaloids 279

10.2 Alkaloids with exocyclic nitrogen 282

10.3 Polyamine alkaloids 283

10.4 Peptide alkaloids 283

10.5 Terpene alkaloids 284

References 285

Index 289

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Professor Ari M.P. Koskinen, Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, Finland
Professor Koskinen has held academic appointments at the University of Sussex and University of Oulu , and transferred to his current position at Aalto University in 1999 as Professor of Organic Chemistry. He also holds docentships at the Universities of Helsinki and Turku. Professor Koskinen is a member of the Finnish Academy of Sciences and Letters, the Novartis Foundation International Scientific Advisory Panel, the Scientific Advisory Board of the Finnish Chemical Industry Federation, European Society for Combinatorial Sciences, on the management committees of EU-research programs, and is a founding member of the European Chemical Society. He is the author or co-author of some 160 publications, 15 patents and three books.
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• Based on a successful course taught for the last 20 years at universities in the UK and Finland
• Uses natural product chemistry as a framework for describing strategies for asymmetric synthesis
• Discusses the practical (mainly pharmacological) importance of selected important compounds
• Emphasizes the target oriented approach of organic synthesis
• Includes key references and an index of compounds
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“Asymmetric Synthesis of Natural Products, 2nd Edition will find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduates and postgraduates working in natural products chemistry, organic synthesis, medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.  It is also useful for practising researchers who want to refresh their knowledge of the field.”  (Chimie Nouvelle, 1 March 2013)

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