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Fungi: Biology and Applications, 2nd Edition

Kevin Kavanagh (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-97769-8
384 pages
August 2011
Fungi: Biology and Applications, 2nd Edition (111997769X) cover image
Fungi: Biology and Applications, Second Edition provides a comprehensive treatment of fungi, covering biochemistry, genetics and the medical and economic significance of these organisms at introductory level. With no prior knowledge of the subject assumed, the opening chapters offer a broad overview of the basics of fungal biology, in particular the physiology and genetics of fungi and also a new chapter on the application of genomics to fungi. Later chapters move on to include more detailed coverage of topics such as antibiotic and chemical commodities from fungi, new chapters on biotechnological use of fungal enzymes and fungal proteomics, and fungal diseases of humans, antifungal agents for use in human therapy and fungal pathogens of plants.
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List of Contributors ix

1 Introduction to Fungal Physiology 1
Graeme M. Walker and Nia A. White

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Morphology of Yeasts and Fungi 2

1.3 Ultrastructure and Function of Fungal Cells 4

1.4 Fungal Nutrition and Cellular Biosyntheses 11

1.5 Fungal Metabolism 21

1.6 Fungal Growth and Reproduction 26

1.7 Conclusions 33

2 Fungal Genetics 37
Malcolm Whiteway and Catherine Bachewich

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Fungal Life Cycles 39

2.3 Sexual Analysis: Regulation of Mating 46

2.4 Unique Characteristics of Filamentous Fungi that are Advantageous for Genetic Analysis 51

2.5 Genetics as a Tool 52

2.6 Conclusion 62

3 Fungal Genomics 67
David Fitzpatrick and Edgar Mauricio Medina Tovar

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Genome Sequencing 73

3.3 Bioinformatics Tools 77

3.4 Comparative Genomics 83

3.5 Genomics and the Fungal Tree of Life 87

3.6 Online Fungal Genomic Resources 89

3.7 Conclusion 92

4 Fungal Genetics: A Post-Genomic Perspective 95
Brendan Curran and Virginia Bugeja

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Genomics 96

4.3 Transcriptomics and Proteomics 106

4.4 Proteomics 110

4.5 Systems Biology 119

4.6 Conclusion 121

5 Fungal Fermentations Systems and Products 125
Kevin Kavanagh

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 Fungal Fermentation Systems 126

5.3 Commercial Fungal Products 132

5.4 Conclusion 145

6 Pharmaceutical and Chemical Commodities from Fungi 147
Karina A. Horgan and Richard A. Murphy

6.1 Introduction to Pharmaceutical and Chemical Commodities 147

6.2 Fungal Metabolism 148

6.3 Antibiotic Production 150

6.4 Pharmacologically Active Products 156

6.5 Chemical Commodities 162

6.6 Yeast Extracts 172

6.7 Enriched Yeast 174

6.8 Conclusions 177

7 Biotechnological Use of Fungal Enzymes 179
Shauna M. McKelvey and Richard A. Murphy

7.1 Introduction to Enzymes 179

7.2 Enzymes in Industry 180

7.3 Current Enzyme Applications 180

7.4 Future Direction of Industrial Enzymes 186

7.5 Specific Enzymes 186

7.6 Enzyme Production Strategies 201

7.7 Conclusions 202

8 The Biotechnological Exploitation of Heterologous Protein Production in Fungi 205
Brendan Curran and Virginia Bugeja

8.1 Introduction 205

8.2 Heterologous Protein Expression in Fungi 206

8.3 Case Study: Hepatitis B Vaccine: A Billion Dollar Heterologous Protein from Yeast 218

8.4 Further Biotechnological Applications of Expression Technology 222

8.5 Conclusions 227

9 Fungal Proteomics 231
Sean Doyle

9.1 Introduction 231

9.2 Protein Isolation and Purification 234

9.3 Electrophoretic Techniques 237

9.4 Protein Mass Spectrometry 240

9.5 Fungal Proteomics 247

9.6 Specialized Proteomics Applications in Fungal Research 252

9.7 Conclusion 253

10 Fungal Infections of Humans 257
Derek Sullivan, Gary Moran and David C. Coleman

10.1 Introduction 257

10.2 Superficial Mycoses 258

10.3 Opportunistic Mycoses 259

10.4 Endemic Systemic Mycoses 273

10.5 Mycotoxicoses 275

10.6 Concluding Remarks 276

11 Antifungal Agents for Use in Human Therapy 279
Khaled H. Abu-Elteen and Mawieh Hamad

11.1 Introduction 279

11.2 Drugs Targeting the Plasma Membrane 281

11.3 Drugs Targeting the Cell Wall 296

11.4 Drugs Targeting Nucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis 300

11.5 Novel Therapies 304

11.6 Conclusions 310

12 Fungal Pathogens of Plants 313
Fiona Doohan

12.1 Fungal Pathogens of Plants 313

12.2 Disease Symptoms 314

12.3 Factors Influencing Disease Development 318

12.4 The Disease Cycle 319

12.5 Genetics of the Plant–Fungal Pathogen Interaction 320

12.6 Mechanisms of Fungal Plant Parasitism 320

12.7 Mechanisms of Host Defence 324

12.8 Disease Control 326

12.9 Disease Detection and Diagnosis 329

12.10 Vascular Wilt Diseases 331

12.11 Blights 334

12.12 Rots and Damping-Off Diseases 336

12.13 Leaf and Stem Spots, Anthracnose and Scabs 338

12.14 Rusts, Smuts and Powdery Mildew Diseases 339

12.15 Global Repercussions of Fungal Diseases of Plants 340

12.16 Conclusions 342

Answers to Revision Questions 345

Index 363

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