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Wireless Communications: Principles, Theory and Methodology

ISBN: 978-1-119-97867-1
44 pages
December 2015
Wireless Communications: Principles, Theory and Methodology (111997867X) cover image

Description

Understand the mechanics of wireless communication

Wireless Communications: Principles, Theory and Methodology offers a detailed introduction to the technology. Comprehensive and well-rounded coverage includes signaling, transmission, and detection, including the mathematical and physics principles that underlie the technology's mechanics. Problems with modern wireless communication are discussed in the context of applied skills, and the various approaches to solving these issues offer students the opportunity to test their understanding in a practical manner. With in-depth explanations and a practical approach to complex material, this book provides students with a clear understanding of wireless communication technology.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Resources for wireless communications 3

1.2 Shannon’s theory 3

1.3 Three challenges 4

1.4 Digital modulation versus coding 5

1.5 Philosophy to combat interference 6

1.6 Evolution of processing strategy 7

1.7 Philosophy to exploit two-dimensional random fields 7

1.8 Cellular: Concept, Evolution, and 5G 8

1.9 The structure of this book 10

1.10 Repeatedly used abbreviations and math symbols 10

Problems 12

References 12

2 Mathematical Background 14

2.1 Introduction 14

2.2 Congruence mapping and signal spaces 14

2.3 Estimation methods 19

2.3.1 Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) 20

2.3.2 Maximum a posteriori estimation 21

2.4 Commonly used distributions in wireless 21

2.4.1 Chi-square distributions 21

2.4.2 Gamma distribution 25

2.4.3 Nakagami distribution 26

2.4.4 Wishart distribution 26

2.5 The calculus of variations 28

2.6 Two inequalities for optimization 29

2.6.1 Inequality for Rayleigh quotient 29

2.6.2 Hadamard inequality 29

2.7 Q-function 30

2.8 The CHF method and its skilful applications 32

2.8.1 Gil-Pelaez’s lemma 32

2.8.2 Random variables in denominators 32

2.8.3 Parseval’s theorem 33

2.9 Matrix operations and differentiation 33

2.9.1 Decomposition of a special determinant 33

2.9.2 Higher order derivations 33

2.9.3 Kronecker product 34

2.10 Additional reading 34

Problems 34

References 35

3 Channel Characterization 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Large-scale propagation loss 38

3.2.1 Free-space propagation 39

3.2.2 Average large-scale path loss in mobile 40

3.2.3 Okumura’s model 40

3.2.4 Hata’s model 42

3.2.5 JTC air model 42

3.3 Lognormal shadowing 43

3.4 Multipath characterization for local behavior 44

3.4.1 An equivalent bandwidth 44

3.4.2 Temporal evolution of path coefficients 49

3.4.3 Statistical description of local fluctuation 50

3.4.4 Complex Gaussian distribution 50

3.4.5 Nakagami fading 51

3.4.6 Clarke–Jakes model 52

3.5 Composite model to incorporate multipath and shadowing 53

3.6 Example to illustrate the use of various models 54

3.6.1 Static design 54

3.6.2 Dynamic design 55

3.6.3 Large-scale design 56

3.7 Generation of correlated fading channels 56

3.7.1 Rayleigh fading with given covariance structure 56

3.7.2 Correlated Nakagami fading 57

3.7.3 Complex correlated Nakagami channels 62

3.7.4 Correlated lognormal shadowing 62

3.7.5 Fitting a lognormal sum 64

3.8 Summary 65

3.9 Additional reading 66

Problems 66

References 68

4 Digital Modulation 70

4.1 Introduction 70

4.2 Signals and signal space 71

4.3 Optimal MAP and ML receivers 72

4.4 Detection of two arbitrary waveforms 74

4.5 MPSK 77

4.5.1 BPSK 77

4.5.2 QPSK 79

4.5.3 MPSK 81

4.6 M-ary QAM 85

4.7 Noncoherent scheme–differential MPSK 88

4.7.1 Differential BPSK 88

4.7.2 Differential MPSK 89

4.7.3 Connection to MPSK 89

4.8 MFSK 90

4.8.1 BFSK with coherent detection 90

4.9 Noncoherent MFSK 92

4.10 Bit error probability versus symbol error probability 93

4.10.1 Orthogonal MFSK 93

4.10.2 Square M-QAM 93

4.10.3 Gray-mapped MPSK 94

4.11 Spectral efficiency 96

4.12 Summary of symbol error probability for various schemes 97

4.13 Additional reading 98

Problems 98

References 102

5 Minimum Shift Keying 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 MSK 104

5.3 de Buda’s approach 105

5.3.1 The basic idea and key equations 105

5.4 Properties of MSK signals 106

5.5 Understanding MSK 108

5.5.1 MSK as FSK 108

5.5.2 MSK as offset PSK 109

5.6 Signal space 109

5.7 MSK power spectrum 110

5.8 Alternative scheme–differential encoder 113

5.9 Transceivers for MSK signals 115

5.10 Gaussian-shaped MSK 116

5.11 Massey’s approach to MSK 117

5.11.1 Modulation 117

5.11.2 Receiver structures and error performance 117

5.12 Summary 119

Problems 119

References 120

6 Channel Coding 121

6.1 Introduction and philosophical discussion 121

6.2 Preliminary of Galois fields 123

6.2.1 Fields 123

6.2.2 Galois fields 124

6.2.3 The primitive element of GF(q) 124

6.2.4 Construction of GF(q) 124

6.3 Linear block codes 126

6.3.1 Syndrome test 129

6.3.2 Error-correcting capability 132

6.4 Cyclic codes 134

6.4.1 The order of elements: a concept in GF(q) 134

6.4.2 Cyclic codes 136

6.4.3 Generator, parity check, and syndrome polynomial 137

6.4.4 Systematic form 138

6.4.5 Syndrome and decoding 140

6.5 Golay code 141

6.6 BCH codes 141

6.6.1 Generating BCH codes 142

6.6.2 Decoding BCH codes 143

6.7 Convolutional codes 146

6.7.1 Examples 146

6.7.2 Code generation 147

6.7.3 Markovian property 148

6.7.4 Decoding with hard-decision Viterbi algorithm 150

6.7.5 Transfer function 152

6.7.6 Choice of convolutional codes 155

6.7.7 Philosophy behind decoding strategies 156

6.7.8 Error performance of convolutional decoding 160

6.8 Trellis-coded modulation 162

6.9 Summary 166

Problems 166

References 170

7 Diversity Techniques 171

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Idea behind diversity 173

7.3 Structures of various diversity combiners 174

7.3.1 MRC 174

7.3.2 EGC 175

7.3.3 SC 176

7.4 PDFs of output SNR 176

7.4.1 MRC 176

7.4.2 EGC 178

7.4.3 SC 178

7.5 Average SNR comparison for various schemes 179

7.5.1 MRC 179

7.5.2 EGC 180

7.5.3 SC 181

7.6 Methods for error performance analysis 182

7.6.1 The chain rule 182

7.6.2 The CHF method 183

7.7 Error probability of MRC 183

7.7.1 Error performance in nondiversity Rayleigh fading 183

7.7.2 MRC in i.i.d. Rayleigh fading 185

7.7.3 MRC in correlated Rayleigh fading 187

7.7.4 Pe for generic channels 188

7.8 Error probability of EGC 189

7.8.1 Closed-form solution to order-3 EGC 189

7.8.2 General EGC error performance 191

7.8.3 Diversity order of EGC 192

7.9 Average error performance of SC in Rayleigh fading 193

7.9.1 Pure SC 193

7.9.2 Generalized SC 195

7.10 Performance of diversity MDPSK systems 196

7.10.1 Nondiversity MDPSK in Rayleigh fading 196

7.10.2 Remarks on use of the chain rule 199

7.10.3 Linear prediction to fit the chain rule 199

7.10.4 Alternative approach for diversity MDPSK 200

7.11 Noncoherent MFSK with diversity reception 201

7.12 Summary 203

Problems 204

References 206

8 Processing Strategies for Wireless Systems 209

8.1 Communication problem 209

8.2 Traditional strategy 210

8.3 Paradigm of orthogonality 211

8.4 Turbo processing principle 211

Problems 213

References 213

9 Channel Equalization 214

9.1 Introduction 214

9.2 Pulse shaping for ISI-free transmission 215

9.3 ISI and equalization strategies 216

9.4 Zero-forcing equalizer 217

9.4.1 Orthogonal projection 217

9.4.2 ZFE 219

9.4.3 Equivalent discrete ZFE receiver 221

9.5 MMSE linear equalizer 225

9.6 Decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) 227

9.7 SNR comparison and error performance 229

9.8 An example 230

9.9 Spectral factorization 233

9.10 Summary 234

Problems 234

References 236

10 Channel Decomposition Techniques 238

10.1 Introduction 238

10.2 Channel matrix of ISI channels 239

10.3 Idea of channel decomposition 239

10.4 QR-decomposition-based Tomlinson–Harashima equalizer 240

10.5 The GMD equalizer 242

10.6 OFDM for time-invariant channel 243

10.6.1 Channel SVD 243

10.6.2 OFDM: a multicarrier modulation technique 244

10.6.3 PAPR and statistical behavior of OFDM 246

10.6.4 Combating PAPR 247

10.7 Cyclic prefix and circulant channel matrix 248

10.8 OFDM receiver 251

10.9 Channel estimation 251

10.10 Coded OFDM 252

10.11 Additional reading 252

Problems 252

References 254

11 Turbo Codes and Turbo Principle 257

11.1 Introduction and philosophical discussion 257

11.1.1 Generation of random-like long codes 258

11.1.2 The turbo principle 259

11.2 Two-device mechanism for iteration 259

11.3 Turbo codes 261

11.3.1 A turbo encoder 261

11.3.2 RSC versus NRC 261

11.3.3 Turbo codes with two constituent RSC encoders 264

11.4 BCJR algorithm 266

11.5 Turbo decoding 270

11.6 Illustration of turbo-code performance 270

11.7 Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts 272

11.8 Convergence and fixed points 276

11.9 Statistics of LLRs 277

11.9.1 Mean and variance of LLRs 277

11.9.2 Mean and variance of hard decision 277

11.10 Turbo equalization 278

11.11 Turbo CDMA 281

11.12 Turbo IDMA 283

11.13 Summary 283

Problems 284

References 287

12 Multiple-Access Channels 289

12.1 Introduction 289

12.2 Typical MA schemes 291

12.3 User space of multiple-access 292

12.3.1 User spaces for TDMA 293

12.3.2 User space for CDMA 294

12.3.3 User space for MC-CDMA 294

12.3.4 MC-DS-CDMA 295

12.3.5 User space for OFDMA 296

12.3.6 Unified framework for orthogonal multiaccess schemes 297

12.4 Capacity of multiple-access channels 298

12.4.1 Flat fading 299

12.4.2 Frequency-selective fading 300

12.5 Achievable MI by various MA schemes 301

12.5.1 AWGN channel 301

12.5.2 Flat-fading MA channels 304

12.6 CDMA-IS-95 306

12.6.1 Forward link 306

12.6.2 Reverse link 308

12.7 Processing gain of spreading spectrum 310

12.8 IS-95 downlink receiver and performance 310

12.9 IS-95 uplink receiver and performance 317

12.10 3GPP-LTE uplink 318

12.11 m-Sequences 321

12.11.1 PN sequences of a shorter period 322

12.11.2 Conditions for m-sequence generators 322

12.11.3 Properties of m-sequence 323

12.11.4 Ways to generate PN sequences 324

12.12 Walsh sequences 327

12.13 CAZAC sequences for LTE-A 327

12.14 Nonorthogonal MA schemes 329

12.15 Summary 330

Problems 330

References 334

13 Wireless MIMO Systems 337

13.1 Introduction 337

13.2 Signal model and mutual information 338

13.3 Capacity with CSIT 339

13.4 Ergodic capacity without CSIT 340

13.4.1 i.i.d. MIMO Rayleigh channels 341

13.4.2 Ergodic capacity for correlated MIMO channels 341

13.5 Capacity: asymptotic results 344

13.5.1 Asymptotic capacity with large MIMO 344

13.5.2 Large SNR approximation 345

13.6 Optimal transceivers with CSIT 346

13.6.1 Optimal eigenbeam transceiver 347

13.6.2 Distributions of the largest eigenvalue 348

13.6.3 Average symbol-error probability 350

13.6.4 Average mutual information of MIMO-MRC 350

13.6.5 Average symbol-error probability 351

13.7 Receivers without CSIT 352

13.8 Optimal receiver 352

13.9 Zero-forcing MIMO receiver 353

13.10 MMSE receiver 355

13.11 VBLAST 357

13.11.1 Alternative VBLAST based on QR decomposition 358

13.12 Space–time block codes 359

13.13 Alamouti codes 359

13.13.1 One receive antenna 359

13.13.2 Two receive antennas 360

13.14 General space–time codes 362

13.14.1 Exact pairwise error probability 363

13.15 Information lossless space–time codes 365

13.16 Multiplexing gain versus diversity gain 365

13.16.1 Two frameworks 366

13.16.2 Derivation of the DMT 367

13.16.3 Available DFs for diversity 368

13.17 Summary 370

Problems 370

References 374

14 Cooperative Communications 377

14.1 A historical review 377

14.2 Relaying 378

14.3 Cooperative communications 379

14.3.1 Cooperation protocols 380

14.3.2 Diversity analysis 382

14.3.3 Resource allocation 384

14.4 Multiple-relay cooperation 385

14.4.1 Multi-relay over frequency-selective channels 386

14.4.2 Optimal matrix structure 389

14.4.3 Power allocation 390

14.5 Two-way relaying 395

14.5.1 Average power constraints 397

14.5.2 Instantaneous power constraint 399

14.6 Multi-cell MIMO 400

14.7 Summary 401

Problems 401

References 402

15 Cognitive Radio 405

15.1 Introduction 405

15.2 Spectrum sensing for spectrum holes 406

15.3 Matched filter versus energy detector 407

15.3.1 Matched-filter detection 407

15.3.2 Energy detection 408

15.4 Detection of random primary signals 410

15.4.1 Energy-based detection 411

15.4.2 Maximum likelihood ratio test 412

15.4.3 Eigenvalue ratio test 413

15.5 Detection without exact knowledge of σ2n 414

15.5.1 LRT with σ2n 414

15.5.2 LRT without noise-level reference 415

15.6 Cooperative spectrum sensing 416

15.7 Standardization of CR networks 418

15.8 Experimentation and commercialization of CR systems 418

Problems 419

References 420

Index 423

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