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Coal Geology, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-99044-4
454 pages
November 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Coal Geology, 2nd Edition (1119990440) cover image

Coal Geology, second edition, offers a thoroughly revised and updated edition of this popular book which provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology.

Coal Geology covers all aspects of coal geology in one volume, bridging the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry.  The object of the book is to provide the reader with a with a description of the origins of coal together with the physical and chemical properties of coal and coal petrology  before proceeding to cover all areas of coal exploration, production and use.  

  • Bridges the gap between academic aspects of coal geology and the practical role of geology in the coal industry
  • Examines historical and stratigraphical geology, together with mining, environmental issues, geophysics and hydrogeology and the marketing of coal
  • Defines worldwide coal resource classifications and methods of calculation
  • Addresses the alternative uses of coal as a source of energy, together with the  environmental implications of coal usage
  • Includes improved illustrations including a colour section
  • Offers a  global approach covering expanding fields in America, China and India

The truly global approach, drawn from the international experiences of the author, recognizes the growing role of coal use in emerging markets. With fully revised coverage of the latest modelling techniques, environmental legislation, equipment and recording methods, the second edition offers a truly invaluable resource for anyone studying, researching or working in the field of coal geology, geotechnical and mining engineering and environmental science.

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Preface to First Edition ix

Preface xi

1 Preview 1

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 Coal geology 1

1.3 Coal use 1

1.4 Background 2

2 Origin of Coal 3

2.1 Introduction 3

2.2 Sedimentation of coal and coal-bearing sequences 3

2.3 Structural effects on coal 33

3 Age and Occurrence of Coal 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Plate tectonics 53

3.3 Stratigraphy 54

3.4 Age and geographical distribution of coal 58

4 Coal as a Substance 87

4.1 Physical description of coal 87

4.2 Coalification (rank) 103

4.3 Coal quality 111

4.4 Classification of coals 125

5 Coal Sampling and Analysis 137

5.1 Coal sampling 137

5.2 In situ sampling 137

5.3 Ex situ sampling 142

5.4 Coal analysis 145

6 Coal Exploration and Data Collection 151

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Field techniques 151

6.3 Drilling 165

6.4 Geotechnical properties 173

6.5 Computer applications 178

7 Coal Resources and Reserves 185

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 Classification of coal resources and reserves 185

7.3 Reporting of resources and reserves 198

7.4 World coal reserves and production 205

8 Geophysics of Coal 211

8.1 Introduction 211

8.2 Physical properties of coal-bearing sequences 211

8.3 Surface geophysical methods 213

8.4 Underground geophysical methods 231

8.5 Geophysical borehole logging 233

9 Hydrogeology of Coal 253

9.1 Introduction 253

9.2 The nature of groundwater and surface flow 253

9.3 Hydrogeological characteristics of coals

and coal-bearing sequences 255

9.4 Collection and handling of hydrogeological data 258

9.5 Groundwater inflows in mines 259

9.6 Groundwater rebound 269

10 Geology and Coal Mining 271

10.1 Introduction 271

10.2 Underground mining 271

10.3 Surface mining 287

11 Coal as an Alternative Energy Source 303

11.1 Introduction 303

11.2 Gas in coal 303

11.3 Underground coal gasification (UCG) 322

11.4 Coal as a liquid fuel 330

11.5 Coal as an oil-prone source rock 332

12 Coal Use and the Environment 339

12.1 Introduction 339

12.2 Coal mining 339

12.3 Coal use 354

12.4 Health 362

12.5 Carbon capture and storage (CCS) 363

12.6 Environmental regulations 364

12.7 Future implications 368

13 Coal Marketing 369

13.1 Introduction 369

13.2 Coal quality 369

13.3 Transportation 371

13.4 Coal contracts 379

13.5 Coal price and indexing 381

References 385

Appendix 1 List of International and National Standards used in Coal and Coke Analysis and Evaluation 399

Appendix 2 Tables of True and Apparent Dip Slope Angles, Gradients and Per Cent Slope 415

Appendix 3 Calorific Values Expressed in Different Units 417

Appendix 4 Units of measurement 421

Appendix 5 Methane Units Converter 423

Glossary 425

Index 431

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Larry Thomas graduated from the University of Wales with a Ph.D in coalfield sedimentology, and has since been associated with the geology, exploration and mining of coal for over 40 years and has produced numerous technical papers, maps and reports on coal deposits worldwide. He is a director of Dargo Associates Ltd., an international coal consultancy, involved in assessment of coal utilization in many parts of the world for both mining operations, fuel for electricity generation and for project financing.

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“All professionals connected to the science, exploration, development, production, and utilization as well as the business of coal should make frequent use of this valuable work. Students planning to enter the field will also find it an important resource. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals/practitioners; two-year technical program students.”  (Choice, 1 August 2013)

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