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Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems

ISBN: 978-1-119-99194-6
398 pages
April 2014
Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems (1119991943) cover image

Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems presents a comprehensive overview of how cellulosic energy crops can be sustainably produced and converted to affordable energy through liquid fuels, heat and electricity.

The book begins with an introduction to cellulosic feedstocks, discussing their potential as a large-scale sustainable energy source, and technologies for the production of liquid fuels, heat and electricity. Subsequent chapters examine miscanthus, switchgrass, sugarcane and energy cane, sorghums and crop residues, reviewing their phylogeny, cultural practices, and opportunities for genetic improvement. This is followed by a detailed focus on woody crops, including eucalyptus, pine, poplar and willow. Critical logistical issues associated with both herbaceous and woody feedstocks are reviewed, and alternate strategies for harvesting, transporting, and storing cellulosic materials are also examined. The final sectionof the booktackles the challenge of achieving long-term sustainability, addressing economic, environmental and social factors.

Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems is a valuable resource for academics, students and industry professionals working in the field of biomass cultivation and conversion, bioenergy, crop science and agriculture.

Topics covered include:

  • Identifying suitable cellulosic energy crops that are adapted to a wide range of climates and soils
  • Best management practices for sustainably growing, harvesting, storing, transporting and pre-processing these crops
  • The development of integrated cellulosic energy cropping systems for supplying commercial processing plants
  • Challenges and opportunities for the long-term sustainability of cellulosic energy crops

 This book was conceived and initiated by David I. Bransby, Professor of Energy and Forage Crops in the Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences at Auburn University, USA.

 For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs

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Foreword xvii

Series Preface xix

Preface xxi

List of Contributors xxiii

1 Introduction to Cellulosic Energy Crops 1
Mark Laser and Lee Lynd

1.1 Cellulosic Biomass: Definition, Photosynthesis, and Composition 1

1.2 Cellulosic Biomass Properties and Their Relevance to Downstream Processing 4

1.3 Desirable Traits and Potential Supply of Cellulosic Energy Crops 7

1.4 The Case for Cellulosic Energy Crops 8

2 Conversion Technologies for the Production of Liquid Fuels and Biochemicals 15
Sofie Dobbelaere, Tom Anthonis, and Wim Soetaert

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Biomass Conversion Technologies 16

2.3 (Bio)Chemical Conversion Route 17

2.4 Thermochemical Conversion Route 23

2.5 Summary and Conclusions 27

3 Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity 31
Jacob J. Jacobson and Kara G. Cafferty

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Combustion 33

3.3 Repowering 35

3.4 Gasification 35

3.5 Pyrolysis 35

3.6 Direct Hydrothermal Liquefaction 37

3.7 Anaerobic Digestion 37

3.8 Integrated Biorefineries 38

3.9 Summary 39

4 Miscanthus Genetics and Agronomy for Bioenergy Feedstock 43
Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel, Charlotte Demay, Emeline Rosiau, Fabien Ferchaud, Linda Bethencourt, Stephanie Arnoult, Camille Dauchy, Nicolas Beaudoin, and Hubert Boizard

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 Phylogeny, Growth, Yield and Chemical Composition 44

4.3 Cultural Practices 50

4.4 Genetic Improvement 57

4.5 Conclusion 65

5 Switchgrass 75
Rob Mitchell, D.K. Lee, and Michael Casler

5.1 Overview 75

5.2 Phylogeny, Growth, Yield and Chemical Composition 75

5.3 Cultural Practices 78

5.4 Genetic Improvement 82

5.5 Summary 85

6 Sugarcane, Energy Cane and Napier Grass 91
Edward P. Richard, Jr. and William F. Anderson

6.1 Sugar and Energy Cane 91

6.2 Napier grass 99

7 Sorghum 109
William L. Rooney

7.1 Introduction 109

7.2 Sorghum Phenology, Genetic Structure and Types 110

7.3 Cultural Practices 114

7.4 Genetic Improvement 118

7.5 Summary and Conclusions 123

8 Crop Residues 131
Douglas L. Karlen and David R. Huggins

8.1 Overview 131

8.2 Corn Stover 133

8.3 Wheat Straw 139

8.4 Future Opportunities 143

9 Eucalyptus 149
Michael W. Cunningham and Bijay Tamang

9.1 Phylogeny, Growth, Yield and Chemical Composition 149

9.2 Cultural Practices 153

9.3 Genetic Improvement 155

10 Pine 161
David B. South and Mathew Smidt

10.1 Introduction 161

10.2 Cultural Practices 165

10.3 Harvesting 173

10.4 Genetic Improvement 176

10.5 Economics 177

10.6 Government Regulations 179

10.7 Final Comments 180

11 Poplar 183
Andrzej Klasa and Doug Karlen

11.1 Introduction 183

11.2 Cultural Practices 184

11.3 Genetic Improvement 193

11.4 Utilization 193

11.5 Carbon Sequestration and Soil Response 194

12 Development and Deployment of Willow Biomass Crops 201
Timothy A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson, T. Buchholz, J. Caputo, and M. Eisenbies

12.1 Introduction 201

12.2 Shrub Willow Characteristics 202

12.3 Production Systems for Willow Biomass Crops 204

12.4 Willow Biomass Crop Economics 208

12.5 Environmental and Rural Development Benefits 211

12.6 Commercial Development 212

12.7 Conclusions 214

13 Herbaceous Biomass Logistics 219
John S. Cundiff

13.1 Introduction 219

13.2 Typical Biomass Logistics Constraints 220

13.3 Linkage in Logistics Chain 221

13.4 Plant Size 225

13.5 Harvesting 226

13.6 Highway Hauling 229

13.7 Development of Concept for Multibale Handling Unit 232

13.8 Functionality Analysis for Rack System Concept 236

13.9 Cost Analysis for 24-h Hauling Using Rack System Concept 240

13.10 Summary 242

Appendix 13.A Cost to Operate Workhorse Forklift (Example for Equipment Cost Calculations) 244

Appendix 13.B Operational Plan for "Rack System" Example 245

B.1 Operation Plan for SSL Loading 245

B.2 Influence of SSL Size on Rack Loading Operations 246

B.3 Total Trucks Required – 24-h Hauling 247

B.4 Total Racks Required – 24-h Hauling 248

14 Woody Biomass Logistics 251
Robert Keefe, Nathaniel Anderson, John Hogland, and Ken Muhlenfeld

14.1 Introduction 251

14.2 Overview of the Woody Biomass Supply Chain 252

14.3 Woody Biomass from Dedicated Energy Crops 254

14.4 Woody Biomass from Stand Thinning 255

14.5 Logging Residues 256

14.6 Harvesting and Processing Systems and Equipment 260

14.7 Woody Biomass Transportation 266

14.8 Pretreatment 269

14.9 Handling and Storage 271

14.10 Logistics Management 273

15 Economic Sustainability of Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems 281
Kelly D. Zering

15.1 Introduction 281

15.2 Economics of Crop Production 282

15.3 Risk and Uncertainty 287

15.4 Risk Mitigation and Management 291

15.5 Supply, Demand and Prices 293

15.6 The Start-Up Barrier 295

15.7 Elements of Sustainability 296

15.8 Policy 296

15.9 Summary 297

16 Environmental Sustainability of Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems 299
Richard Lowrance and Adam Davis

16.1 Introduction 299

16.2 Greenhouse Gas Effects 301

16.3 Soil Properties 302

16.4 Water Quantity and Quality 303

16.5 Invasive Species Effects/Mitigation/Enhancement 305

16.6 Wildlife and Biodiversity 307

16.7 Conclusions 308

17 Social Sustainability of Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems 315
Cornelia Butler Flora and Charles F. Curtiss

17.1 Introduction 315

17.2 Standards for Social Sustainability 316

17.3 Forest-Based Biofuels 317

17.4 Biofuel Social Sustainability Standards 318

17.5 Summary and Conclusions 331

18 Commercialization of Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems 335
Sam W. Jackson

18.1 Overview 335

18.2 Introduction 335

18.3 Land Availability 336

18.4 Crop Selection and Contracting 337

18.5 Financing Establishment 339

18.6 Agronomic Efficiencies and Management 339

18.7 Identifying and Addressing Risks 341

18.8 Conclusion 343

19 Selected Global Examples of Cellulosic Cropping System Trends 345
Douglas L. Karlen, Marcelo Valadares Galdos, Sarita Candida Rabelo, Henrique Continho Junqueira Franco, Antonio Bonomi, Jihong Li, Shi-Zhong Li, Jaya Shankar Tumuluru, and Leslie Ovard

19.1 Overview 345

19.2 Cellulosic Ethanol in Brazil 346

19.3 Cellulosic Bioenergy in China 350

19.4 Bioenergy in India 355

19.5 Summary 360

Acknowledgements 360

References 361

Index 365

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