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Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys

ISBN: 978-1-119-99305-6
826 pages
August 2012
Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys (1119993059) cover image
Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys

Hasse Fredriksson KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Ulla Åkerlind University of Stockholm, Sweden

Solidification or crystallization occurs when atoms are transformed from the disordered liquid state to the more ordered solid state, and is fundamental to metals processing. Conceived as a companion volume to the earlier works, Materials Processing during Casting (2006) and Physics of Functional Materials (2008), this book analyzes solidification and crystallization processes in depth.

Starting from the thermodynamic point of view, it gives a complete description, taking into account kinetics and mass transfer, down to the final structure. Importantly, the book shows the relationship between the theory and the experimental results. Topics covered include:

  • Fundamentals of thermodynamics
  • Properties of interfaces
  • Nucleation
  • Crystal growth - in vapours, liquids and melts
  • Heat transport during solidification processes
  • Solidification structures - faceted, dendritic, eutectic and peritectic
  • Metallic glasses and amorphous alloy melts

Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys features many solved examples in the text, and exercises (with answers) for students. Intended for Masters and PhD students as well as researchers in Materials Science, Engineering, Chemistry and Metallurgy, it is also a valuable resource for engineers in industry.

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Preface

Chapter 1 Thermodynamic Concepts and Relationships
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Thermodynamic Concepts and Relationships
1.3 Thermodynamics of Single Component Systems
1.4. Thermodynamics of Multiple Component Systems
1.5 Thermodynamics of Alloys
1.6 Thermodynamics of Ideal Binary Solutions
1.7 Thermodynamics of Non-Ideal Binary Solutions
1.8 Experimental Determination of Thermodynamic Quantities of Binary Alloys
Summary

Chapter 2 Thermodynamics Analysis of Solidification Processes in Metals and Alloys
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Thermodynamics of Pure Metals
2.3 Thermodynamics of Binary Alloys
2.4 Equilibrium between Phases in Binary Solutions. Phase Diagrams of Binary Alloys
2.5 Driving Force of Solidification in Binary Alloys
2.6 Thermodynamics of Ternary Alloys
2.7 Thermodynamics of Vacancies in Pure Metals and Alloys
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 3 Properties of Interfaces
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classical Theory of Interface Energy and Surface Tension
3.3 Thermodynamics of Interfaces
3.4 Structures of Interfaces
3.5 Equilibrium Shapes of Crystals
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 4 Nucleation
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Homogeneous Nucleation
4.3 Heterogeneous Nucleation. Inoculation
4.4 Nucleation of Bubbles
4.5 Crystal Multiplication
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 5 Crystal Growth in Vapours
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Crystal Morphologies
5.3 Chemical Vapour Deposition
5.4 Crystal Growth
5.5 Normal Crystal Growth of Rough Surfaces in Vapours
5.6 Layer Crystal Growth of Smooth Surfaces in Vapours
5.7 Influence of Impurities on Crystal Growth in Vapours
5.8 Epitaxial Growth
5.9 Whisker Growth
5.10 Mechanical Restrictions on Thin Films
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 6 Crystal Growth in Liquids and Melts
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Structures of Crystals and Melts
6.3 Growth Methods
6.4 Crystal Growth
6.5 Volume Changes and Relaxation Processes during Anelastic Crystal Growth in Metal Melts
6.6 Normal Crystal Growth in Pure Metal Melts
6.7 Layer Crystal Growth of Smooth Surfaces in Liquids
6.8 Normal Crystal Growth in Binary Alloys
6.9 Diffusion Controlled Growth of Planar Crystals in Binary Alloys
6.10 Diffusion Controlled Growth of Spherical Crystals in Alloys
6.11 Impingement
6.12 Precipitation of Pores
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 7 Heat Transport during Solidification Processes.Thermal Analysis
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Basic Concepts and Laws of Heat Transport
7.3 Convection
7.4 Theory of Heat Transport at Unidirectional Solidification
7.5 Production of Single Crystals by Unidirectional Solidification
7.6 Thermal Analysis
7.7 Variable Heat of Fusion of Metals and Alloys
7.8 Variable Heat Capacitivity of Metals and Alloys
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 8 Crystal Growth Controlled by Heat and Mass Transport
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Heat and Mass Transports in Alloys during Unidirectional Solidification
8.3 Zone Refining
8.4 Single Crystal Production by Czochralski Technique
8.5 Cellular Growth. Constitutional Undercooling. Interface Stability
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 9 Faceted and Dendritic Solidification Structures
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Formation of Faceted Crystals
9.3 Growth of Faceted Crystals in Pure Metal Melts
9.4 Growth of Faceted Crystals in Alloy Melts
9.5 Growth of Dendritic Crystals
9.6 Development of Dendrites
9.7 Transitions between Structure Types in Alloys
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 10 Eutectic Solidification Structures
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Classification of Eutectic Structures
10.3 Normal Eutectic Growth
10.4 Degenerate and Coupled Eutectic Growth
10.5 Structures of Ternary Alloys
10.6 Solidification of Fe-C Eutectics
10.7 Solidification of Al-Si Eutectics
10.8 Transitions between Normal Lamellar and Rod Eutectic Growths
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 11 Peritectic Solidification Structures
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Peritectic Reactions and Transformations
11.3 Peritectic Reactions and Transformations in Iron-Base Alloys
11.4 Metastable Reactions in Iron-Base Alloys
11.5 Metatectic Reactions and Transformations
11.6 Microsegregation in Iron-Base Alloys
11.7 Transition between Peritectic and Eutectic Reactions in in Iron-Base Alloys
Summary
Exercises
References

Chapter 12 Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts
12.1 Introduction
12.1 History and Development of Amorphous Alloys
12.2 Basic Concepts and Definitions
12.3 Production of Metallic Glasses
12.4 Experimental Methods for Structure Determination of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts
12.5 Structure of Metallic Glasses
12.6 Comparison of the Structures of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts.
Rough Model of Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Alloy Melts
12.7 Casting of Metallic Glasses. Crystallization Processes in Amorphous Alloy Melts
12.8 Classification of Metallic Glasses
12.9 Properties and Applications of Metallic Glasses
Summary
Exercises
References

Answers to Exercises

Index

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Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
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