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System Health Management: with Aerospace Applications

Stephen B Johnson (Editor), Thomas Gormley (Co-Editor), Seth Kessler (Co-Editor), Charles Mott (Co-Editor), Ann Patterson-Hine (Co-Editor), Karl Reichard (Co-Editor), Philip Scandura, Jr. (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-99873-0
664 pages
June 2011
System Health Management: with Aerospace Applications (1119998735) cover image
System Health Management: with Aerospace Applications provides the first complete reference text for System Health Management (SHM), the set of technologies and processes used to improve system dependability. Edited by a team of engineers and consultants with SHM design, development, and research experience from NASA, industry, and academia, each heading up sections in their own areas of expertise and co-coordinating contributions from leading experts, the book collates together in one text the state-of-the-art in SHM research, technology, and applications. It has been written primarily as a reference text for practitioners, for those in related disciplines, and for graduate students in aerospace or systems engineering.

There are many technologies involved in SHM and no single person can be an expert in all aspects of the discipline.System Health Management: with Aerospace Applications provides an introduction to the major technologies, issues, and references in these disparate but related SHM areas. Since SHM has evolved most rapidly in aerospace, the various applications described in this book are taken primarily from the aerospace industry. However, the theories, techniques, and technologies discussed are applicable to many engineering disciplines and application areas.

Readers will find sections on the basic theories and concepts of SHM, how it is applied in the system life cycle (architecture, design, verification and validation, etc.), the most important methods used (reliability, quality assurance, diagnostics, prognostics, etc.), and how SHM is applied in operations (commercial aircraft, launch operations, logistics, etc.), to subsystems (electrical power, structures, flight controls, etc.) and to system applications (robotic spacecraft, tactical missiles, rotorcraft, etc.).

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About the Editors xxiii

List of Contributors xxv

Foreword xxix

Preface xxxiii

Part One THE SOCIO-TECHNICAL CONTEXT OF SYSTEM HEALTH MANAGEMENT
Charles D. Mott

1 The Theory of System Health Management 3
Stephen B. Johnson

Overview 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Functions, Off-Nominal States, and Causation 7

1.3 Complexity and Knowledge Limitations 10

1.4 SHM Mitigation Strategies 11

1.5 Operational Fault Management Functions 12

1.6 Mechanisms 19

1.7 Summary of Principles 22

1.8 SHM Implementation 23

1.9 Some Implications 24

1.10 Conclusion 26

Bibliography 26

2 Multimodal Communication 29
Beverly A. Sauer

Overview 29

2.1 Multimodal Communication in SHM 31

2.2 Communication Channels 34

2.3 Learning from Disaster 36

2.4 Current Communication in the Aerospace Industry 37

2.5 The Problem of Sense-making in SHM Communication 37

2.6 The Costs of Faulty Communication 38

2.7 Implications 39

2.8 Conclusion 41

Acknowledgments 43

Bibliography 43

3 Highly Reliable Organizations 49
Andrew Wiedlea

Overview 49

3.1 The Study of HROs and Design for Dependability 49

3.2 Lessons from the Field: HRO Patterns of Behavior 52

3.2.1 Inseparability of Systemic Equipment and Anthropologic Hazards 53

3.2.2 Dynamic Management of System Risks 54

3.2.3 Social Perceptions of Benefits and Hazards 56

3.3 Dependable Design, Organizational Behavior, and Connections to the HRO Project 57

3.4 Conclusion 60

Bibliography 61

4 Knowledge Management 65
Edward W. Rogers

Overview 65

4.1 Systems as Embedded Knowledge 66

4.2 KM and Information Technology 66

4.3 Reliability and Sustainability of Organizational Systems 67

4.4 Case Study of Building a Learning Organization: Goddard Space Flight Center 69

4.5 Conclusion 75

Bibliography 75

5 The Business Case for SHM 77
Kirby Keller and James Poblete

Overview 77

5.1 Business Case Processes and Tools 78

5.2 Metrics to Support the Decision Process 80

5.3 Factors to Consider in Developing an Enterprise Model 82

5.4 Evaluation of Alternatives 86

5.5 Modifications in Selected Baseline Model 86

5.6 Modeling Risk and Uncertainty 87

5.7 Model Verification and Validation 88

5.8 Evaluation Results 88

5.9 Conclusion 90

Bibliography 91

Part Two SHM AND THE SYSTEM LIFECYCLE
Seth S. Kessler

6 Health Management Systems Engineering and Integration 95
Timothy J. Wilmering and Charles D. Mott

Overview 95

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Systems Thinking 96

6.3 Knowledge Management 97

6.4 Systems Engineering 98

6.5 Systems Engineering Lifecycle Stages 99

6.6 Systems Engineering, Dependability, and Health Management 100

6.7 SHM Lifecycle Stages 103

6.8 SHM Analysis Models and Tools 110

6.9 Conclusion 112

Acknowledgments 112

Bibliography 112

7 Architecture 115
Ryan W. Deal and Seth S. Kessler

Overview 115

7.1 Introduction 115

7.2 SHM System Architecture Components 117

7.3 Examples of Power and Data Considerations 119

7.4 SHM System Architecture Characteristics 120

7.5 SHM System Architecture Advanced Concepts 126

7.6 Conclusion 126

Bibliography 127

8 System Design and Analysis Methods 129
Irem Y. Tumer

Overview 129

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 Lifecycle Considerations 130

8.3 Design Methods and Practices for Effective SHM 132

8.4 Conclusion 141

Acknowledgments 142

Bibliography 142

9 Assessing and Maturing Technology Readiness Levels 145
Ryan M. Mackey

Overview 145

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 Motivating Maturity Assessment 146

9.3 Review of Technology Readiness Levels 147

9.4 Special Needs of SHM 149

9.5 Mitigation Approaches 151

9.6 TRLs for SHM 153

9.7 A Sample Maturation Effort 154

9.8 Conclusion 156

Bibliography 157

10 Verification and Validation 159
Lawrence Z. Markosian, Martin S. Feather and David E. Brinza

Overview 159

10.1 Introduction 159

10.2 Existing Software V&V 160

10.3 Feasibility and Sufficiency of Existing Software V&V Practices for SHM 165

10.4 Opportunities for Emerging V&V Techniques Suited to SHM 167

10.5 V&V Considerations for SHM Sensors and Avionics 170

10.6 V&V Planning for a Specific SHM Application 171

10.7 A Systems Engineering Perspective on V&V of SHM 180

10.8 Conclusion 181

Acknowledgments 181

Bibliography 181

11 Certifying Vehicle Health Monitoring Systems 185
Seth S. Kessler, Thomas Brotherton and Grant A. Gordon

Overview 185

11.1 Introduction 185

11.2 Durability for VHM Systems 186

11.3 Mechanical Design for Structural Health Monitoring Systems 189

11.4 Reliability and Longevity of VHM Systems 190

11.5 Software and Hardware Certification 190

11.6 Airworthiness Certification 191

11.7 Health and Usage Monitoring System Certification Example 191

11.8 Conclusion 194

Acknowledgments 194

Bibliography 194

Part Three ANALYTICAL METHODS
Ann Patterson-Hine

12 Physics of Failure 199
Kumar V. Jata and Triplicane A. Parthasarathy

Overview 199

12.1 Introduction 200

12.2 Physics of Failure of Metals 201

12.3 Physics of Failure of CMCs 212

12.4 Conclusion 216

Bibliography 216

13 Failure Assessment 219
Robyn Lutz and Allen Nikora

Overview 219

13.1 Introduction 219

13.2 FMEA 220

13.3 SFMEA 221

13.4 FTA 222

13.5 SFTA 222

13.6 BDSA 223

13.7 Safety Analysis 225

13.8 Software Reliability Engineering 225

13.9 Tools and Automation 228

13.10 Future Directions 229

13.11 Conclusion 229

Acknowledgments 230

Bibliography 230

14 Reliability 233
William Q. Meeker and Luis A. Escobar

Overview 233

14.1 Time-to-Failure Model Concepts and Two Useful Distributions 233

14.2 Introduction to System Reliability 236

14.3 Analysis of Censored Life Data 239

14.4 Accelerated Life Testing 243

14.5 Analysis of Degradation Data 244

14.6 Analysis of Recurrence Data 246

14.7 Software for Statistical Analysis of Reliability Data 249

Acknowledgments 250

Bibliography 250

15 Probabilistic Risk Assessment 253
William E. Vesely

Overview 253

15.1 Introduction 253

15.2 The Space Shuttle PRA 254

15.3 Assessing Cumulative Risks to Assist Project Risk Management 254

15.4 Quantification of Software Reliability 257

15.5 Description of the Techniques Used in the Space Shuttle PRA 260

15.6 Conclusion 263

Bibliography 263

16 Diagnosis 265
Ann Patterson-Hine, Gordon B. Aaseng, Gautam Biswas, Sriram Narashimhan and Krishna Pattipati

Overview 265

16.1 Introduction 266

16.2 General Diagnosis Problem 267

16.3 Failure Effect Propagation and Impact 267

16.4 Testability Analysis 268

16.5 Diagnosis Techniques 268

16.6 Automation Considerations for Diagnostic Systems 276

16.7 Conclusion 277

Acknowledgments 277

Bibliography 277

17 Prognostics 281
Michael J. Roemer, Carl S. Byington, Gregory J. Kacprzynski, George Vachtsevanos and Kai Goebel

Overview 281

17.1 Background 282

17.2 Prognostic Algorithm Approaches 282

17.3 Prognosis RUL Probability Density Function 287

17.4 Adaptive Prognosis 287

17.5 Performance Metrics 289

17.6 Distributed Prognosis System Architecture 292

17.7 Conclusion 292

Bibliography 293

Part Four OPERATIONS
Karl M. Reichard

18 Quality Assurance 299
Brian K. Hughitt

Overview 299

18.1 NASA QA Policy Requirements 300

18.2 Quality System Criteria 302

18.3 Quality Clauses 303

18.4 Workmanship Standards 304

18.5 Government Contract Quality Assurance 304

18.6 Government Mandatory Inspection Points 305

18.7 Quality System Audit 306

18.8 Conclusion 307

Bibliography 308

19 Maintainability: Theory and Practice 309
Gary O’Neill

Overview 309

19.1 Definitions of Reliability and Maintainability 310

19.2 Reliability and Maintainability Engineering 311

19.3 The Practice of Maintainability 314

19.4 Improving R&M Measures 315

19.5 Conclusion 316

Bibliography 317

20 Human Factors 319
Robert S. McCann and Lilly Spirkovska

Overview 319

20.1 Background 320

20.2 Fault Management on Next-Generation Spacecraft 323

20.3 Integrated Fault Management Automation Today 325

20.4 Human–Automation Teaming for Real-Time FM 328

20.5 Operations Concepts for Crew–Automation Teaming 330

20.6 Empirical Testing and Evaluation 333

20.7 Future Steps 334

20.8 Conclusion 336

Bibliography 336

21 Launch Operations 339
Robert D. Waterman, Patricia E. Nicoli, Alan J. Zide, Susan J. Waterman, Jose M. Perotti, Robert A. Ferrell and Barbara L. Brown

Overview 339

21.1 Introduction to Launch Site Operations 339

21.2 Human-Centered Health Management 340

21.3 SHM 346

21.4 LS Abort and Emergency Egress 347

21.5 Future Trends Post Space Shuttle 348

21.6 Conclusion 349

Bibliography 349

22 Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations 351
Brian O’Hagan and Alan Crocker

Overview 351

22.1 The Flight Operations Team 352

22.2 System Architecture Implications 353

22.3 Operations Products, Processes and Techniques 358

22.4 Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle and ISS Experience 364

22.5 Conclusion 366

Bibliography 367

23 Military Logistics 369
Eddie C. Crow and Karl M. Reichard

Overview 369

23.1 Focused Logistics 371

23.2 USMC AL 373

23.3 Benefits and Impact of SHM on Military Operations and Logistics 378

23.4 Demonstrating the Value of SHM in Military Operations and Logistics 381

23.5 Conclusion 385

Bibliography 386

Part Five SUBSYSTEM HEALTH MANAGEMENT
Philip A. Scandura, Jr.

24 Aircraft Propulsion Health Management 389
Al Volponi and Bruce Wood

Overview 389

24.1 Introduction 389

24.2 Basic Principles 390

24.3 Engine-Hosted Health Management 393

24.4 Operating Conditions 394

24.5 Computing Host 395

24.6 Software 396

24.7 On-Board Models 398

24.8 Component Life Usage Estimation 398

24.9 Design of an Engine Health Management System 399

24.10 Supporting a Layered Approach 401

24.11 Conclusion 401

Bibliography 402

25 Intelligent Sensors for Health Management 405
Gary W. Hunter, Lawrence G. Oberle, George Y. Baaklini, Jose M. Perotti and Todd Hong

Overview 405

25.1 Introduction 406

25.2 Sensor Technology Approaches 407

25.3 Sensor System Development 409

25.4 Supporting Technologies: High-Temperature Applications Example 412

25.5 Test Instrumentation and Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) 413

25.6 Transition of Sensor Systems to Flight 414

25.7 Supporting a Layered Approach 415

25.8 Conclusion 416

Acknowledgments 417

Bibliography 417

26 Structural Health Monitoring 419
Fu-Kuo Chang, Johannes F.C. Markmiller, Jinkyu Yang and Yujun Kim

Overview 419

26.1 Introduction 419

26.2 Proposed Framework 421

26.3 Supporting a Layered Approach 427

26.4 Conclusion 427

Acknowledgments 427

Bibliography 427

27 Electrical Power Health Management 429
Robert M. Button and Amy Chicatelli

Overview 429

27.1 Introduction 429

27.2 Summary of Major EPS Components and their Failure Modes 431

27.3 Review of Current Power System HM 437

27.4 Future Power SHM 440

27.5 Supporting a Layered Approach 441

27.6 Conclusion 442

Bibliography 442

28 Avionics Health Management 445
Michael D. Watson, Kosta Varnavas, Clint Patrick, Ron Hodge, Carl S. Byington, Savio Chau and Edmund C. Baroth

Overview 445

28.1 Avionics Description 445

28.2 Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Qualification 448

28.3 Environments 450

28.4 Failure Sources 453

28.5 Current Avionics Health Management Techniques 453

28.6 Avionics Health Management Requirements 460

28.7 Supporting a Layered Approach 464

28.8 Conclusion 464

Bibliography 464

29 Failure-Tolerant Architectures for Health Management 467
Daniel P. Siewiorek and Priya Narasimhan

Overview 467

29.1 Introduction 467

29.2 System Failure Response Stages 468

29.3 System-Level Approaches to Reliability 469

29.4 Failure-Tolerant Software Architectures for Space Missions 470

29.5 Failure-Tolerant Software Architectures for Commercial Aviation Systems 475

29.6 Observations and Trends 477

29.7 Supporting a Layered Approach 480

29.8 Conclusion 480

Acknowledgments 481

Bibliography 481

30 Flight Control Health Management 483
Douglas J. Zimpfer

Overview 483

30.1 A FC Perspective on System Health Management 483

30.2 Elements of the FC System 485

30.3 FC Sensor and Actuator HM 485

30.4 FC/Flight Dynamics HM 490

30.5 FC HM Benefits 493

30.6 Supporting a Layered Approach 493

30.7 Conclusion 493

Bibliography 494

31 Life Support Health Management 497
David Kortenkamp, Gautam Biswas and Eric-Jan Manders

Overview 497

31.1 Introduction 497

31.2 Modeling 501

31.3 System Architecture 504

31.4 Future NASA Life Support Applications 509

31.5 Supporting a Layered Approach 510

31.6 Conclusion 510

Bibliography 510

32 Software 513

Philip A. Scandura, Jr.

Overview 513

32.1 Sampling of Accidents Attributed to Software Failures 513

32.2 Current Practice 514

32.3 Challenges 517

32.4 Supporting a Layered Approach 518

32.5 Conclusion 518

Bibliography 518

Part Six SYSTEM APPLICATIONS
Thomas J. Gormley

33 Launch Vehicle Health Management 523
Edward N. Brown, Anthony R. Kelley and Thomas J. Gormley

Overview 523

33.1 Introduction 523

33.2 LVSHM Functionality and Scope 524

33.3 LV Terminology and Operations 526

33.4 LV Reliability Lessons Learned 527

33.5 LV Segment Requirements and Architecture 528

33.6 LVSHM Analysis and Design 529

33.7 LV LVSHM System Descriptions 534

33.8 LVSHM Future System Requirements 537

33.9 Conclusion 540

Bibliography 541

34 Robotic Spacecraft Health Management 543
Paula S. Morgan

Overview 543

34.1 Introduction 544

34.2 Spacecraft Health and Integrity Concerns for Deep-Space Missions 544

34.3 Spacecraft SHM Implementation Approaches 546

34.4 Standard FP Implementation 546

34.5 Robotic Spacecraft SHM Allocations 547

34.6 Spacecraft SHM Ground Rules and Requirements 548

34.7 SFP and SIFP Architectures 550

34.8 Conclusion 554

Bibliography 554

35 Tactical Missile Health Management 555
Abdul J. Kudiya and Stephen A. Marotta

Overview 555

35.1 Introduction 555

35.2 Stockpile Surveillance Findings 556

35.3 Probabilistic Prognostics Modeling 557

35.4 Conclusion 563

Bibliography 564

36 Strategic Missile Health Management 565
Gregory A. Ruderman

Overview 565

36.1 Introduction 565

36.2 Fundamentals of Solid Rocket Motors 566

36.3 Motor Components 567

36.4 Challenges for Strategic Rocket Health Management 568

36.5 State of the Art for Solid Rocket System Health Management (SHM) 570

36.6 Current Challenges Facing SRM SHM 572

36.7 Conclusion 574

Bibliography 574

37 Rotorcraft Health Management 577
Paula J. Dempsey and James J. Zakrajsek

Overview 577

37.1 Introduction 577

37.2 Rotorcraft System Health Management Standard Practices 579

37.3 New Practices 582

37.4 Lessons Learned 583

37.5 Future Challenges 584

37.6 Conclusion 585

Bibliography 585

38 Commercial Aviation Health Management 589
Philip A. Scandura, Jr., Michael Christensen, Daniel Lutz and Gary Bird

Overview 589

38.1 Commercial Aviation Challenge 590

38.2 Layered Approach to SHM 590

38.3 Evolution of Commercial Aviation SHM 591

38.4 Commercial State of the Art 593

38.5 The Next Generation: Intelligent Vehicles/Sense and Respond 600

38.6 Conclusion 603

Bibliography 603

Glossary 605

Acronyms 607

Index 617

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Dr Stephen B. Johnson is a Heath Management Systems Engineer at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in the USA, as well as an associate research professor at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. He has been active in the field of SHM for over 20 years, and has authored many research papers on the topic. He has also authored or edited 3 books in the aerospace field including The Secret of Apollo: Systems Management in American and European Space Programs.

Mr Thomas Gormley has been involved with the NASA Aerospace industry for over 20 years, and was the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project Leader for Rockwell Space Systems during the early 1990s. He brings expertise in systems implementation to the project.

Dr Seth S. Kessler is president and owner of Metis Design Corporation, a design consulting firm specializing in custom sensing solutions. He brings expertise in structural health monitoring and composite materials to the project.

Mr Charles Mott is a business analyst with the Tauri group, currently under contract at NASA. He brings expertise in the socio-technical aspects of large-scale technological projects to the project.

Dr Ann Patterson-Hine is Group Leader of the Health Management Technologies Group at the Ames Research Center. She brings expertise on the use of engineering models for model-based reasoning in advanced monitoring and diagnostic systems to the project.

Dr Karl Reichard is head of the ARL Penn State Monitoring and Automation Department. He brings expertise in the implementation of signal processing, control and embedded diagnost

Mr Philip A. Scandura, Jr joined Honeywell in 1984 where he currently holds the position of Staff Scientist in their Advanced Technology Organization. He brings expertise in the system definition and implementation of real-time, embedded systems for use in safety-critical and mission-critical applications to the project.

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