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Mobile Satellite Communications: Principles and Trends, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-99886-0
752 pages
May 2014
Mobile Satellite Communications: Principles and Trends, 2nd Edition (1119998867) cover image

Description

Demand for Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) is on the increase, with a huge surge of interest in mobile communications in recent years and high-paced advancements in the supporting system architectures, devices and applications. This thoroughly revised and updated book provides a comprehensive guide to the MSS technologies and emerging trends. It takes a system level approach, giving in-depth treatment of technical and business related issues. The author, a leading professional in the area, draws on his extensive experience in industry and research, to provide the reader with a sound and informed understanding of the technology.

Mobile Satellite Communications includes introductory material for the reader new to the field, in addition to exploring prevalent system concepts, architecture, practices and trends for the more experienced. An in-depth review of scientific principles merged with business models and regulatory considerations presents a balanced perspective of commercial mobile satellite systems.

This book will be of interest to practicing engineers in mobile satellite communications and mobile broadcasting, research and development professionals working in these areas, mobile satellite service providers and operators. Academics and students studying satellite systems/technology, specialists in other classes of satellite systems, technical and marketing managers, strategists and planners of telecommunication systems: individuals interested in mobile communications, satellite and telecommunications/broadcasting technology will also find this book insightful.

Key Features:

  • Comprehensive treatment of mobile satellite communications topics, including radio link aspects, satellite constellations, architectural and operational aspects, as well as business planning models, MSS radio interface standards, spectrum forecast methodologies and system examples.
  • Addresses related themes such as mobile broadcasting, mobile VSATs, search and rescue, and navigation systems.
  • Introduces emerging technologies such as mobile broadband, television broadcasting to handheld units, advanced capacity enhancement techniques, hybrid system architecture concepts, including a rich sample of research topics such as multiple input multiple output, satellite-based ad-hoc networks, and highlights initiatives in the use of Q/V frequency bands.
  • Includes revision questions at the end of each chapter.
  • An accompanying website for interaction (www.satellitesandyou.com).
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

About the Author xvii

Acknowledgements xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Scope and Organization 1

1.2 Evolution of Mobile Telecommunications 5

1.2.1 Terrestrial Systems 5

1.2.2 Satellite Systems 8

1.3 Satellite System Architecture 13

1.3.1 Radio Frequency Environment 15

1.3.2 Orbit 18

1.3.3 Tolerable Delay in Data Delivery 20

1.3.4 Handover 20

1.3.5 Mobility Management 20

1.3.6 Physical Environment 21

1.3.7 Satellite Access 21

1.3.8 Spectrum Management 22

1.3.9 Radio Link Reliability 23

1.4 Business Plan 23

1.5 Regulatory Considerations 23

1.6 Operational Considerations 24

1.7 Mobile Systems – A Comparison 26

1.8 Example Applications 27

1.9 Practical Limitations 27

1.10 Related Satellite Systems 29

1.10.1 M-VSAT Systems 29

1.10.2 Satellite Navigation Systems 30

1.10.3 Direct Broadcasts to Individuals and Mobiles 30

1.11 Trends 31

1.11.1 General 31

1.11.2 Market 32

1.11.3 System Architecture 32

1.11.4 Spectrum 33

1.11.5 Technology 33

Revision 34

References 35

2 Satellite Constellations 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Satellite Orbits 38

2.2.1 Orbital Mechanics Basics 38

2.2.2 Satellite Coverage 56

2.2.3 Space Environment 57

2.2.4 Eclipse on Satellites 58

2.2.5 The Sun’s Interference 61

2.2.6 Doppler Effect 61

2.2.7 Orbital Debris 61

2.2.8 Summary of Orbital Characteristics 68

2.3 Satellite Constellations 69

2.3.1 Considerations in Constellation Design 72

2.3.2 Polar Constellations 73

2.3.3 Inclined Orbit Constellations 75

2.3.4 Hybrid Constellations 79

2.3.5 Regional Coverage 79

2.3.6 Constellations for Non-Real-Time Systems 80

2.3.7 Use of Spot Beams 80

2.3.8 Availability Considerations for Non-Geostationary Satellites 80

Revision 85

References 86

3 Radio Link 89

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Spectrum Issues 89

3.2.1 Spectrum Sharing Methods 92

3.2.2 Spectrum Forecast Methodology 98

3.3 Propagation Characteristics 100

3.3.1 General Propagation Characteristics 101

3.3.2 Land Mobile Channel 111

3.3.3 Maritime Channel 146

3.3.4 Aeronautical Channel 153

3.3.5 System Implications 158

3.4 Radio Link Analysis 162

Revision 170

References 171

4 Modulation, Coding and Multiple Access 175

4.1 Introduction 175

4.2 Modulation 175

4.2.1 MSS Requirements 175

4.2.2 Preferences 177

4.2.3 PSK Schemes 179

4.2.4 Performance Comparison of Conventional Digital Modulation Schemes 183

4.2.5 Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (COFDM) Modulation Systems 191

4.2.6 Spread Spectrum Modulation 194

4.3 Coding 197

4.3.1 Trellis-Coded Modulation (TCM) 204

4.3.2 Modulation and Coding Trends and Issues 205

4.3.3 Automatic Repeat Request 207

4.4 Multiple Access Schemes 208

4.4.1 Comparison of Multiple Access Schemes 212

4.4.2 Comparison of Spectral and Power Efficiency 214

Revision 222

References 223

5 Fixed Earth Stations and User Terminals 227

5.1 Introduction 227

5.2 Gateways 228

5.3 User Terminals 230

5.3.1 Antennas 231

5.3.2 Hand-Held UT 239

5.3.3 Mobile Terminals 248

5.4 Environmental Issues 264

5.4.1 Biological Effects 264

Revision 269

References 269

6 Spacecraft 271

6.1 Introduction 271

6.2 Satellites for MSS 272

6.2.1 Transponders 273

6.2.2 Antenna Systems 296

6.2.3 Effect of Orbital Characteristics on Spacecraft Design 298

6.3 Intersatellite links 302

6.3.1 Frequency Bands 304

6.3.2 Implementation Issues 306

6.4 Emerging Technologies 306

6.5 Launching Satellite Constellations 308

Revision 312

References 312

7 System Architecture 315

7.1 Introduction 315

7.2 Air Interface 316

7.2.1 Ancillary Terrestrial Component 319

7.3 System Development 320

7.3.1 Influences 322

7.3.2 Constraints and Considerations 324

7.3.3 System Synthesis 326

7.3.4 Technical Trade-off Analysis 327

7.3.5 Impact of Satellite Altitude 331

7.4 Network Considerations 334

7.4.1 General 334

7.4.2 Functional Entities 338

7.4.3 Network Connectivity 341

7.4.4 Gateway Locations 345

7.4.5 Call Handling 345

7.4.6 Mobility Management 348

Revision 355

References 356

8 Satellite Radio Interface Standards 357

8.1 Introduction 357

8.2 Satellite Radio Interface Standards 359

8.2.1 GMR 359

8.2.2 Satellite Component of UMTS/IMT-2000 380

8.3 Interactive Mobile Broadband Broadcast Standard 407

8.3.1 DVB-S2/RCS+M 407

Revision 422

References 423

9 Operational Considerations 425

9.1 Introduction 425

9.2 Perspective 425

9.3 Subscriber and Gateway Commissioning 428

9.3.1 Gateways 428

9.3.2 Mobile Earth Stations 429

9.4 Radio Resource Management 431

9.4.1 Spectrum Management 431

9.4.2 EIRP Management 454

9.5 Radio Frequency Monitoring 455

9.5.1 Radio Frequency Interference 460

9.5.2 Radio Frequency Interference Management 460

9.6 Quality of Service 463

9.7 Licensing Issues 464

Revision 466

References 466

10 Commercial Issues 469

10.1 Introduction 469

10.2 System Planning 472

10.3 Service Distribution Model 483

10.4 Billing Issues 486

10.4.1 Investment Routes 487

10.5 Regulatory Issues 488

10.6 Traffic Forecast 489

10.6.1 UMTS Methodology 490

10.6.2 ITU Traffic and Spectrum Forecast Methodology 498

10.6.3 Eurocontrol/FAA Approach to Traffic Model Methodology 507

10.7 End-User Perspective – A Case Study 507

10.7.1 A Maritime Perspective 507

Revision 513

References 513

11 Representative MSS Systems 515

11.1 Introduction 515

11.2 Geostationary Satellite Systems 516

11.2.1 Inmarsat System 516

11.2.2 Asia Cellular Satellite (ACeS) System 534

11.2.3 EUTELTRACS 539

11.3 LightSquared MSS-ATC Proposal 544

11.3.1 Background 544

11.3.2 MSS-ATC Hybrid Network 545

11.4 Big-LEO Systems 547

11.4.1 Iridium 547

11.4.2 Globalstar 557

11.5 Little-LEO System 564

11.5.1 ORBCOMM 564

11.6 MEO System 568

11.6.1 ICO System 568

11.7 Hybrid Orbit Systems 572

11.7.1 ELLIPSOTM System 572

References 577

12 Mobile Satellite Broadcast Systems 581

12.1 Introduction 581

12.2 Evolution 582

12.3 Mobile Broadcast System Requirements 585

12.3.1 Service Requirements 585

12.3.2 Receiver Types 586

12.4 System Configuration 587

12.5 Space Segment 588

12.6 Transmission Technology 590

12.7 OSI Architecture in a Broadcast Context 594

12.8 Prevalent Transmission Systems 597

12.9 Receiver Architecture 604

12.10 DVB-SH System Architecture 606

12.11 Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS) 611

12.12 DBS Reception on Mobile Terminals 612

Revision 613

References 614

13 Related Satellite Systems 617

13.1 Introduction 617

13.2 Distress and Safety Systems 617

13.2.1 Cospas-Sarsat Search and Rescue System 619

13.3 Navigation Systems 627

13.3.1 Background 627

13.3.2 Satellite Navigation Principles 628

13.3.3 Navigation System Examples 630

13.4 Mobile Very Small Aperture Terminals 642

13.4.1 Rationale 643

13.4.2 Issues 644

13.4.3 Technology 647

13.5 Terrestrial Cellular System 649

13.5.1 System Architecture 650

Revision 653

References 653

14 The Future 655

14.1 Introduction 655

14.2 Market Projections 656

14.3 Spectrum Forecast 659

14.4 Capacity Enhancement Techniques 659

14.4.1 Multi-User Detection 660

14.4.2 Static and Dynamic Frequency Planning 665

14.4.3 Cross-Layer Optimization 665

14.4.4 Cognitive Radio 667

14.5 System Architecture 672

14.5.1 Terrestrial System Progression 672

14.5.2 Adaptation of Terrestrial 4G Air-Interface 674

14.5.3 Hybrid Architecture 675

14.5.4 Satellite-Enabled ad hoc Networks 676

14.6 Enabling Concepts and Technologies 678

14.6.1 Propagation 679

14.6.2 Modulation and Coding 683

14.6.3 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output 685

14.6.4 Software Defined Radio 689

14.7 Little-LEO Systems 692

14.8 Mobile Satellite Systems in Future Networks 693

14.8.1 Aeronautical Systems 693

14.8.2 Speculative Vision 696

Revision 698

References 699

Appendix 703

A.1 Coverage Snapshot of Representative Non-Geostationary MSS Systems 703

A.2 A List of Useful Formulas 705

A.2.1 Geostationary Orbit 705

A.2.2 Propagation 711

A.2.3 Receiver 713

References 714

Index 715

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Author Information

Madhavendra Richharia is a practising professional for well over three decades, with experience in diverse areas such as design and development of earth station products, satellite system design and operation, system planning, academics and research. He is currently a senior consultant and director of Knowledge Space Ltd, UK, prior to which he held a senior technical position at Inmarsat for over 15 years. Earlier, he was a faculty member at the University of Surrey. He has also contributed to satellite communication programmes of ISRO as an engineering scientist. He has published a number of technical papers on a variety of satellite communications topic, authored a book on satellite system design and co-authored a book covering concepts and technologies applicable to satellite systems for personal applications. The first edition of this book was well-received and continues to be recommended for many university courses. He obtained his PhD degree from the University of Birmingham UK and Bachelor and Masters from BHU. He is a member of the IEEE and the IET.

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