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Wine Production: Vine to Bottle

ISBN: 978-1-4051-1365-6
152 pages
September 2005, Wiley-Blackwell
Wine Production: Vine to Bottle (1405113650) cover image
The standard of wines made today is arguably higher than any time in the six thousand years of vinous history. The level of knowledge of producers and the ability to control the processes in wine production is also greatly improved.

Authors Keith Grainger and Hazel Tattersall detail these processes, from vine to bottle, looking at key factors such as geography, winemaking techniques, the impact of decisions made upon style and quality, and problems that may be encountered. The authors are not afraid to discuss practices that may be regarded as controversial.

Highly regarded consultants to the wine industry, Grainger and Tattersall present a clear and accessible handbook:

  • Bullet points
  • Vineyard and winery photographs
  • Diagrams
  • Text boxes
Wine Production: Vine to Bottle is a concise and easy-to-use reference guide for all busy food and beverage industry professionals, students and others needing a working knowledge of wine production.
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Series Editor’s Foreword ix

Preface xii

Acknowledgements xiv

Introduction xv

Chapter 1 Viticulture – The Basics 1

1.1 The structure of the grape berry 1

1.1.1 Stalks 2

1.1.2 Skins 2

1.1.3 Yeasts 2

1.1.4 Pulp 3

1.1.5 Pips 4

1.2 The grape vine 4

1.3 What is a grape variety? 5

1.4 Reasons for grafting 6

1.5 Phylloxera vastatrix 7

1.6 Rootstocks 9

1.7 The lifespan of the vine 11

Chapter 2 Climate 12

2.1 Climatic requirements of the grape vine 12

2.1.1 Sunshine 12

2.1.2 Warmth 13

2.1.3 Cold winter 13

2.1.4 Rainfall 13

2.2 Climatic enemies of the grape vine 14

2.2.1 Frost 14

2.2.2 Hail 14

2.2.3 Strong winds 15

2.2.4 Excessive heat 15

2.3 Mesoclimate and microclimate 15

2.3.1 Water 15

2.3.2 Altitude 16

2.3.3 Aspect 16

2.3.4 Woods and trees 16

2.4 The concept of degree days 17

2.5 Impact of climate 17

2.6 Weather 18

Chapter 3 Soil 20

3.1 Soil requirements of the grape vine 20

3.1.1 Good drainage 20

3.1.2 Fertility 21

3.1.3 Nutrient and mineral requirements 21

3.2 Influence of soils upon wine style and quality 21

3.3 Soil types suitable for viticulture 22

3.4 Soil compatibility 23

3.5 Terroir 23

Chapter 4 The Vineyard 24

4.1 Vineyard location 24

4.2 Density of planting of vines 25

4.3 Training systems 26

4.3.1 Main types of vine training 26

4.3.2 Other training systems 29

4.4 Pruning methods and canopy management 30

4.5 Irrigation 31

4.6 The growing season and work in the vineyard 32

Chapter 5 Pests and Diseases 34

5.1 Important vineyard pests 34

5.2 Diseases 36

5.3 Prevention and treatments 38

Chapter 6 Environmental Approaches in the Vineyard 39

6.1 Integrated pest management (IPM) 39

6.2 Organic viticulture 40

6.3 Biodynamic viticulture 42

Chapter 7 The Harvest 44

7.1 Grape ripeness and the timing of picking 44

7.2 Harvesting methods 45

7.2.1 Hand picking 45

7.2.2 Machine picking 46

7.3 Style and quality 47

Chapter 8 Vinification – The Basics 48

8.1 Basic principles of vinification 48

8.2 Winery location and design 49

8.3 Winery equipment 50

8.3.1 Fermentation vats 51

Chapter 9 Red Wine Making 54

9.1 Destemming and crushing 54

9.2 Must preparation 55

9.3 Fermentation, temperature control and extraction 57

9.3.1 Fermentation 57

9.3.2 Temperature control 57

9.3.3 Extraction 58

9.4 Maceration 58

9.5 Racking 59

9.6 Pressing 59

9.7 Malolactic fermentation 60

9.8 Blending 60

9.9 Maturation 60

Chapter 10 Dry White Wine Making 62

10.1 Crushing and pressing 62

10.1.1 Crushing 62

10.1.2 Pressing 62

10.2 Must preparation 63

10.3 Fermentation 63

10.4 Malolactic fermentation 64

10.5 Maturation 64

Chapter 11 Preparing Wine for Bottling 65

11.1 Fining 65

11.2 Filtration 66

11.2.1 Earth filtration 66

11.2.2 Sheet filtration 67

11.2.3 Membrane filtration 67

11.3 Stabilisation 70

11.4 Adjustment of sulphur dioxide levels 71

11.5 Bottling 71

11.6 Closures 71

Chapter 12 Detailed Processes of Red and White Wine Making 73

12.1 Wine presses and pressing 73

12.1.1 Continuous press 73

12.1.2 Batch press 74

12.1.3 Horizontal plate press 74

12.1.4 Horizontal pneumatic press 74

12.1.5 Vertical basket press 76

12.2 Use of gases to prevent spoilage 78

12.3 Natural or cultured yeasts 78

12.4 Destemming 79

12.5 Fermenting sugar-rich musts to dryness 79

12.6 Colour extraction, concentration and tannin balance 79

12.6.1 Must concentrators and reverse osmosis 79

12.6.2 Cold soaking (pre-fermentation maceration) 81

12.6.3 Pump overs 81

12.6.4 Rack and return (délestage) 81

12.6.5 Rotary vinifiers 83

12.6.6 Thermo-vinification – heat extraction 83

12.6.7 Whole grape fermentation, carbonic and semi-carbonic maceration 83

12.6.8 Fixing colour 84

12.6.9 Post-fermentation maceration 84

12.7 Macro-, micro- and hyper-oxygenation 85

12.7.1 Hyper-oxygenation 85

12.7.2 Macro-oxygenation 85

12.7.3 Micro-oxygenation 85

12.8 Removal of excess alcohol 86

Chapter 13 Barrel Maturation and Oak Treatments 87

13.1 The influence of the barrel 87

13.1.1 Size of the barrel 88

13.1.2 Type and origin of oak (or any other wood) 88

13.1.3 Manufacturing techniques, including toasting 88

13.1.4 Amount of time spent in barrel 88

13.1.5 Where barrels are stored 89

13.2 Oak treatments 89

Chapter 14 Making Other Types of Still Wine 91

14.1 Medium-sweet and sweet wines 91

14.1.1 Medium-sweet wines 92

14.1.2 Sweet wines 92

14.2 Rosé wines 93

14.3 Liqueur (fortified) wines 94

14.3.1 Sherry production 94

14.3.2 Port production 95

14.3.3 Other well-known liqueur wines 96

Chapter 15 Sparkling Wines 97

15.1 Fermentation in sealed tank 97

15.2 Second fermentation in bottle 97

15.3 The traditional method 98

15.3.1 Pressing 98

15.3.2 Débourbage 99

15.3.3 First fermentation 99

15.3.4 Assemblage 99

15.3.5 Addition of liqueur de tirage 99

15.3.6 Second fermentation 100

15.3.7 Maturation 100

15.3.8 Rémuage 100

15.3.9 Stacking sur pointes 102

15.3.10 Dégorgement 102

15.3.11 Dosage (liqueur d’expedition) 102

15.3.12 Corking 102

Chapter 16 Problems and Solutions 103

16.1 Vintages – style and quality 103

16.2 Coping with problems in the vineyard 104

16.3 Handling fruit in the winery 105

16.4 Problems in winemaking 106

16.4.1 Delay in processing fruit 106

16.4.2 Lack of fruit selection 106

16.4.3 Problems with crushing, destemming or pressing 107

16.4.4 Lack of control of fermentations 107

16.4.5 Delays in post-fermentation racking 107

16.4.6 Lack of attention to barrels 107

16.4.7 Poor or over-filtration 108

16.4.8 Careless bottling 108

Chapter 17 Common Faults and their Causes 109

17.1 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole 109

17.2 Oxidation 110

17.3 Excessive volatile acidity 111

17.4 Excessive sulphur dioxide 111

17.5 Reductivity 112

17.6 Brettanomyces 112

17.7 Dekkera 113

17.8 Geraniol 113

17.9 Geosmin 113

Glossary 114

Bibliography 122

Useful Websites 124

Index 127

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Keith Graiger, Wine Educator, UK
Hazel Tattersall, Wine Educator, UK
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Part of the Blackwell Food Industry Briefing Series

Authors are consultants to the wine industry

Succinct, user friendly and easy to assimilate information

Essential cutting edge information for the food industry

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"The complete production process all in one paperback book of around 120 pages."
VITIS-VEA Database
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