March 2006, Wiley-Blackwell
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J D Pidgeon, Director, Broom's Barn Research Centre.
Preface and Acknowledgements.
A P Draycott, formerly of Broom's Barn Research Centre.
A P Draycott, formerly of Broom's Barn Research Centre.
Origins of crop.
Economics and politics.
World production of sugar from beet and cane.
Sugar beet performance.
2 Development of sugar beet.
S A Francis, Broom's Barn Research Centre.
Early domestication of beet crops.
Development of sugar beet from fodder beet.
Discovery of sugar in roots of beet.
Re-examination of beets for sugar production.
First beet sugar factory.
Establishment of a global beet sugar industry.
North and South America.
Asia and Africa.
Technical development of sugar beet.
Plant breeding and genetics.
Agronomy and plant protection.
3 Plant structure and crop physiology.
G F J Milford, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden.
Canopy development and dry matter production.
Leaf canopies and radiation interception.
Factors affecting expansion of leaf area.
Storage root development and sugar accumulation.
Storage root development.
Nutritional physiology and beet quality.
Potassium and sodium.
Physiological and agronomic aspects of bolting.
Genetic and molecular control of flowering.
4 Genetics and breeding.
N O Bosemark.
Objectives of sugar beet breeding.
Characters subjected to selection.
The inheritance of specific characters.
Autotetraploidy in sugar beet.
Traditional methods of variety development in sugar beet.
Background to hybrid breeding in sugar beet.
Hybrid breeding methods and development of hybrid varieties.
Breeding for specific characters.
The impact of plant biotechnology on sugar beet breeding.
Strategies in a comprehensive hybrid breeding programme with sugar beet.
5 Seed production and quality.
A Kockelmann and U Meyer, KWS .
Methods of beet seed production.
Direct production method.
Flowering, maturation and seed harvest.
Maturation and harvest of sugar beet seed.
Drying and cleaning.
Seed yield and propagation ratios.
Seed law requirements.
6 Soil tillage and crop establishment.
I Håkansson and L Henriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and J E Blomquist, Agraria Ord & Jord.
Objectives of tillage.
Secondary tillage, sowing and post-sowing tillage.
Requirements for seed germination and plant emergence.
Objectives of seedbed preparation.
The function of the seedbed.
Techniques and implements for seedbed preparation.
Sowing and placement of seed.
Crust formation and crust breaking.
Adaptation to local conditions.
Mechanical weed control.
Factors determining compaction.
Short-term effects of compaction.
Long-term effects of plough-layer compaction.
Protection against wind erosion.
K W Jaggard and A Qi, Broom's Barn Research Centre.
Patterns during the growing season.
Photosynthesis and growth.
Light interception and yield.
Water use, light intercepted and yield.
Analysing agronomy in physiological terms.
Assessing light interception.
Plant establishment and spacing.
Analysing the effects of weeds and virus yellows on growth and yield.
Mathematical models and their uses.
8 Nutrition - nitrogen.
M Cariolle and R Duval, Institut Technique Francais de la Betterave Industrielle Service Agronomie.
Nitrogen uptake and concentration.
Nitrogen deficiency and its detection.
Effect of nitrogen on germination, emergence and establishment.
Effect of nitrogen on growth and yield.
Effect of nitrogen on root quality.
Soil supplies of nitrogen.
Form and application of nitrogen fertilizer.
Interactions with the environment.
Summary and conclusions.
9 Nutrition - phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and micronutrients - liming and nutrient deficiencies.
D R Christenson and A P Draycott.
Micronutrients or trace elements.
Soil acidity and liming.
10 Water use and irrigation.
R Morillo-Velarde, Associacion de Investigacion para la Mejora de Cultivo de la Remolacha Azucarera C/Metalurgian 36 and E S Ober, Broom's Barn Research Centre.
Water and physiology.
Defining the water status of plants and soils.
Water use by sugar beet.
Responses to irrigation.
Germination and emergence.
Irrigation and other factors.
11 Virus diseases.
M Stevens, Broom's Barn Research Centre, H-Y Liu, USDA-ARS and O Lemaire, INRA Equipe Vection.
Symptoms and damage.
Development and spread.
Other soil-borne viruses.
Beet soil-borne mosaic.
Beet virus Q.
Beet distortion mosaic.
12 Fungal and bacterial diseases.
M J C Asher, Broom's Barn Research Centre and L E Hanson, USDA-ARS.
Cercospora leaf spot.
Ramularia leaf spot.
Phoma leaf spot.
Alternaria leaf spot.
Beet tumour (Urophlyctis).
Rhizoctonia foliar blight.
Rhizoctoniaroot and crown rot.
Violet root rot.
Southern sclerotium root rot.
Beet vascular necrosis and rot.
Bacterial leaf spot.
Low sugar syndrome (Basses richesses).
A M Dewar, Broom's Barn Research Centre and D A Cooke.
Effects of pests on establishment, growth and yield.
Distribution, biology, and pathogenicity of major pests.
Minimizing yield losses caused by pests.
Other cultural control methods.
Resistant sugar beet cultivars.
Resistant catch crops.
Beneficial organisms and biological control.
14 Weeds and weed control.
M J May, Broom's Barn Research Centre and R G Wilson, University of Nebraska.
Distribution and agricultural importance.
Biology of major weeds.
Effect of weeds on wildlife.
Weed competition and the effect of time of removal.
Weed control outside the sugar beet crop.
In the rotation.
In fallow lay-by situations.
Crop injury from herbicides.
L G Campbell, and K L Klotz, USDA.
Carbohydrate impurity formation.
Crop management and growing conditions.
Reducing mechanical damage.
Storage pile management.
16 Root quality and processing.
J V Dutton, Sugar Industry and Biotechnology Consultancy and A W M Huijbregts, IRS.
Historical overview of beet technical quality.
Concepts of good beet quality.
Dextran and levan.
Factors influencing quality.
Other agronomic factors.
Harvesting and topping.
Factory beet handling.
Evolution of beet quality.
J I Harland, C K Jones, Wyoming Sugar Company and V C Hufford, Midwest Agri-Commodities.
Sugar beet roots.
Sugar beet tops.
Analysis and feeding value.
Feeding sugar beet tops.
Sugar beet pulp.
Characterization of sugar beet pulp.
Analysis and feeding values of sugar beet pulp.
Feeding sugar beet pulp.
Other uses of sugar beet pulp.
Sugar beet molasses.
Analysis and feeding value of sugar beet molasses.
Feeding levels of sugar beet molasses.
Other uses for sugar beet molasses.
Molassed sugar beet pulp (feed).
Molassed pressed pulp.
Dried molassed sugar beet feed.