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Facilities Change Management

Edward Finch (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-5346-1
218 pages
November 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Facilities Change Management (1405153466) cover image
Modern organisations are subject to continual change - technologies evolve, organisational structures are modified, people and underlying cultures are transformed. Yet the facilities that organisations occupy are static and can impede the changes that are essential to organisational survival. The response to change in terms of property and support services is often too little too late - leading to facilities that do not support organisational reality. The facilities management team is thus constantly challenged to bridge the gap between what an organisation has and what it needs.

Facilities Change Management is a practical evaluation of the management of change for facilities managers and related professions. It considers:

  • the forces of change affecting facilities decisions
  • the obstacles to change at a resource level and human level
  • the effective implementation of change
  • the human aspect of change

Each of these is considered in relation to modern facilities management issues.  The discussion will enable practising facilities managers, project managers, surveyors, service providers and architects to understand, engage with and manage facilities change effectively at a strategic level. Through real-life case studies it demonstrates the complexities of change and hidden elements of change that may undermine carefully planned projects.

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Preface xi

Contributors xiii

1 Facilities Change Management in Context 1
Edward Finch

Chapter Overview 1

1.1 Forces of Change Affecting the Built Environment 1

1.2 Inertia and Change 2

1.3 Understanding the S-curve 3

1.4 The Context of Change 5

1.4.1 State Versus Direction 6

1.5 Facilities Management and the Business of Change 8

1.6 The Scope of Facilities Change Management 9

1.7 Replacing Like with Unlike 11

1.8 The Intelligent Client 11

1.9 The Change Management Cycle 12

1.9.1 Recognise 13

1.9.2 Evaluate 14

1.9.3 Adjust 14

1.9.4 Carry Out 15

1.9.5 Track 15

1.9.6 Treasure 15

1.10 Summary 16

2 Change Readiness 17
Edward Finch

Chapter Overview 17

2.1 Service Providers and Partnering 18

2.2 Outsourcing Relationships 18

2.3 The FM Supply Chain 20

2.4 Flexibility in Support of Change Readiness 21

2.5 Building Design Decisions and Flexibility 22

2.6 Types of Flexibility 23

2.7 Conclusions 24

3 Form, Function and the Economics of Change 26
James Pinder, Simon Austin, Rob Schmidt III, and Alistair Gibb

Chapter Overview 26

3.1 Introduction 26

3.2 Changing Demands 27

3.3 Designing for Adaptability 31

3.4 Adaptive Re-use 35

3.5 Conclusions 38

3.6 Acknowledgements 38

References 39

4 The Change Management Challenge in Growth Firms 42
Paul Dettwiler

Chapter Overview 42

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 The Dynamic Relation of Facilities Management Variables and Growth Firms 44

4.3 The External Factors Relevant to FM 47

4.4 External Factors Relevant to FM Requirements 50

4.5 Discerning the Relevance of Needs 51

4.6 Summary 55

5 The Business of Space 57
Danny Shiem Shin Then

Chapter Overview 57

5.1 Introduction 58

5.1.1 Space as a Business Resource 58

5.1.2 Technology and Its Impact on the Corporate Workplace 59

5.2 Context of Space Planning and Management 59

5.2.1 Business Management and Economic Drivers 59

5.2.2 Business Planning and Space Planning 60

5.3 Strategic Space Planning --- The Accommodation Strategy 61

5.4 Assessing Demand --- Organisational Needs 63

5.5 Assessing Supply -- Premises Audit 65

5.6 Reconciling Demand and Supply -- Facilities Solutions 67

5.7 Maintaining Strategic Relevance 69

5.8 The Need for Dialogue 70

5.9 Managing Occupancy Cost --- Monitoring Utilisation 70

5.10 Managing Space Demand Over Time 72

5.10.1 Future Role of Work and Workplace Design 72

5.10.2 Implications on Workplace Management 73

5.11 Acknowledgements 74

6 Project Inception: Facilities Change Management in Practice 76
Jim Smith and Peter Love

Chapter Overview 76

6.1 Introduction 76

6.2 Project Inception 78

6.3 Definition of Project Inception 79

6.4 The Decision to Build 81

6.5 Framework for the Decision to Build 82

6.6 Gaps/Discontinuity in the Process 82

6.7 Model of the Project Inception Process 83

6.8 Performance Briefing 84

6.9 Example Performance Brief 86

6.10 Summary 86

7 Pre-design Evaluation as a Strategic Tool for Facility Managers 92
Sheila Walbe Ornstein and Claudia Andrade

Chapter Overview 92

7.1 Introduction 92

7.2 The Pre-design Evaluation Stage 93

7.3 Pre-design Evaluation: Methods and Techniques 96

7.3.1 Facility Audit (Performance Evaluation of the Building Infrastructure) 97

7.3.2 Space Audit (Performance Evaluation of the Physical Occupation) 97

7.3.3 Survey and Analysis of the Legislative Restrictions 98

7.3.4 Financial Feasibility Studies 98

7.3.5 User Satisfaction Evaluation 98

7.3.6 Data Gathering for the Project Briefing 99

7.3.7 Design Team Briefing (Focus on the Definition of the Design Team) 100

7.3.8 PDE final report 101

7.4 Case Study Example 102

7.5 Conclusions 105

8 Implementing Change 108
Melanie Bull and Tim Brown

Chapter Overview 108

8.1 Participation in the Move 108

8.2 The Project Team and Preparing the Stage 109

8.3 Alternative Workplace Strategies and Space Utilisation 111

8.4 Communication 112

8.5 Change Management Theory 112

8.6 Communication in Change Management 113

8.7 Communication Methods/Mediums 114

8.8 Case Study 115

8.9 Communication Methods Used 115

8.10 Feedback 116

8.11 Satisfaction with Method Used 117

8.11.1 Communicating Impact and Reason for Change 117

8.11.2 Suggested Methods for Improving Communication 118

8.12 Satisfaction 118

8.13 Communication of Change Not Appropriate or Effective 118

8.13.1 Case Study: Conclusion and Recommendations 119

8.14 Recommendations 120

9 User Empowerment in Workspace Change 123
Jacqueline C. Vischer

Chapter Overview 123

9.1 The ‘Science’ of User Participation 123

9.2 Facilities Managers and User Participation 124

9.3 The New Workspace Opportunity 125

9.4 Principles of Workspace Transformation 128

9.4.1 Transformation as Imperative 129

9.4.2 Play Out the Process 130

9.4.3 Embrace Conflict 131

9.4.4 Avoid the Default 132

9.4.5 Not a Zero-sum Game 133

9.4.6 Empowerment is Key 133

9.4.7 Change is Positive 134

9.5 Results of Empowering Building Users 135

10 Post-occupancy Evaluation of Facilities Change 137
Theo J.M. van der Voordt, Iris de Been and Maartje Maarleveld

Chapter Overview 137

10.1 Introduction 138

10.2 Aims and Objectives of Poe 138

10.2.1 Testing Aims and Expectations 138

10.2.2 Exploration and Testing of Theory 139

10.2.3 Improving Understanding of Decision-making Processes 139

10.2.4 Database of Reference Projects 140

10.2.5 Input to Existing or New Decision-making Processes 140

10.2.6 Tools, Design Guidelines and Policy Recommendations 140

10.3 Data-collection Methods 140

10.3.1 WODI Light 143

10.3.2 WODI Light Performance Indicators: Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction 143

10.3.3 Workplace Game 144

10.3.4 Space Utilisation Monitor (SUM) 146

10.4 Application in Practice: A Case Study 146

10.4.1 Context and Aims of the Case Study 146

10.4.2 Data Collection 147

10.4.3 Moving in 148

10.4.4 Post-occupancy Evaluation 149

10.4.5 Lessons Learned 151

10.5 Concluding Remarks 151

11 Change and Attachment to Place 155
Goksenin Inalhan and Edward Finch

Chapter Overview 155

11.1 The Age of Everything 155

11.2 Loss and Grief 156

11.3 Is Place Attachment Healthy? 158

11.4 Dimensions of Place Attachment 160

11.5 The Process of Place Attachment 161

11.6 Evidence of Place Attachment and Territoriality in the Workplace 165

11.6.1 Employees’ Predisposition to Change 167

11.6.2 Attitudes Towards Existing Workspaces 167

11.6.3 Retrospective Views of the Change 167

11.7 Findings 169

11.8 Implications 170

12 Change Management and Cultural Heritage 175
Ana Pereira Roders and John Hudson

Chapter Overview 175

12.1 Introduction 175

12.2 Cultural Heritage 176

12.2.1 Cultural Significance 178

12.3 Cultural Heritage Management 181

12.3.1 Cultural Heritage Assessments 182

12.3.2 Cultural Heritage Impact Assessments 185

12.4 Change Management and Cultural Heritage 187

References 187

Index 191

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Edward Finchis Professor of Facilities Management in the School of the Built Environment at the University of Salford. With a background of over twenty years of academic involvement in the discipline of facilities management, he is co-ordinator for the CIB International Working Party in Facilities Management (CIB W070) and Editor-in-Chief of Facilities – a leading peer reviewed academic journal in the area of facilities management.
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*Presents a fresh light on facilities management by considering front-of-house aspects.

*Treats workplace productivity and customer service as its central theme.

*Brings together a number of relevant themes from the design of the workplace to customer service and stakeholder management.

*Matches core competencies identified in the British Institute of Facilities Management training programme.

*Written in an accessible style by an established author and Editor of the journal Facilities.

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