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The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis: Theory and Methods of Diagnostic Research, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-4051-5787-2
316 pages
November 2008, BMJ Books
The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis: Theory and Methods of Diagnostic Research, 2nd Edition (1405157879) cover image
This unique book presents a framework for the strategy and methodology of diagnostic research, in relation to its relevance for practice. Now in its second edition The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis has been fully revised and extended with new chapters covering the STARD guidelines (STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies) and the multivariable analysis of diagnostic data.


With contributions from leading international experts in evidence-based medicine, this book is an indispensable guide on how to conduct and interpret studies in clinical diagnosis. It will serve as a valuable resource for all investigators who want to embark on diagnostic research and for clinicians, practitioners and students who want to learn more about its principles and the relevant methodological options available.

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List of Contributors, vii

Preface, xi

1 General introduction: evaluation of diagnostic procedures, 1
J. Andre Knottnerus, Frank Buntinx, and Chris van Weel

2 The architecture of diagnostic research, 20
R. Brian Haynes and John J. You

3 Assessment of the accuracy of diagnostic tests: the cross-sectional study, 42
J. Andre Knottnerus and Jean W. Muris

4 Diagnostic testing and prognosis: the randomized controlled trial in test evaluation research, 63
Jeroen G. Lijmer and Patrick M. M. Bossuyt

5 The diagnostic before–after study to assess clinical impact, 83
J. Andre Knottnerus, Geert-Jan Dinant, and Onno P. Van Schayck

6 Designing studies to ensure that estimates of test accuracy will travel, 96
Les M. Irwig, Patrick M. M. Bossuyt, Paul P. Glasziou, Constantine Gatsonis, and Jeroen G. Lijmer

7 Analysis of data on the accuracy of diagnostic tests, 118
J. Dik F. Habbema, Rene Eijkemans, Pieta Krijnen, and J. Andre Knottnerus

8 Multivariable analysis in diagnostic accuracy studies: what are the possibilities?, 146
Frank Buntinx, Bert Aertgeerts, Marc Aerts, Rudi Bruyninckx, J. Andre Knottnerus, Ann van den Bruel, and Jef van den Ende

9 Standards for reporting on diagnostic accuracy studies, 167
Patrick M. M. Bossuyt and Nynke Smidt

10 Guidelines for conducting systematic reviews of studies evaluating the accuracy of diagnostic tests, 180
Frank Buntinx, Bert Aertgeerts, and Petra Macaskill

11 Producing and using clinical prediction rules, 213
Tom Fahey and Johan van der Lei

12 Clinical problem solving and diagnostic decision making: a selective review of the cognitive research literature, 237
Alan Schwartz and Arthur S. Elstein

13 Improving test ordering and its diagnostic cost-effectiveness in clinical practice—bridging the gap between clinical research and routine health care, 256
Ron Winkens, Trudy van der Weijden, Hans Severens, and Geert-Jan Dinant

14 Epilogue: overview of evaluation strategy and challenges, 273
J. Andre Knottnerus, Ann van den Bruel, and Frank Buntinx

Index, 285

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Andre Knottnerus, Professor of General Practice, Maastricht University. He is involved in the Cochrane movement for drawing up tools for accurate diagnostic testing

Frank Buntinx, Professor, Department of Public Health, Leuven University. He is one time chair of the Cochrane Collaboration Diagnostic and Screening Tests Working Group
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  • Provides a useful framework for clinical researchers, showing how to choose appropriate study designs and to prepare and execute diagnostic studies effectively.
  • This edition includes new chapters covering the STARD guidelines (Standards for Reporting on Accuracy Research on Diagnosis) and the analysis of diagnostic data.
  • Addresses the latest developments in diagnosis from the Cochrane Collaboration.
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"An invaluable reference ophthalmologists involved in conduting or interpreting studies on diagnostic research." (Eye News, 1 October 2010)“

This is a thorough compilation of clinical research methods and practices.” (Doody's Reviews, March 2009)

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