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Evidence-Based Cardiology, 3rd Edition

Salim Yusuf (Editor), John Cairns (Editor), John Camm (Editor), Ernest L. Fallen (Editor), Bernard J. Gersh (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-5925-8
1240 pages
December 2009, BMJ Books
Evidence-Based Cardiology, 3rd Edition (1405159251) cover image
Evidence based Cardiology was first published in 1998 to universal acclaim. Now, with the move towards more patient focused health care and at the same time increased emphasis on health economics, evidence-based practice is a more important force in health care delivery than ever.

This new third edition, written by the world’s leading cardiologists, provides graded evidence-based reviews of the major trials together with recommendations for optimum management, and now includes new grading and recommendation methodology.

This is a unique book in the field of cardiology, and the largest evidence based clinical cardiology text.

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List of contributors, viii

Preface to the third edition, xiv

Classification of recommendations and levels of evidence, xvi

List of abbreviations, xvii

Part I: General concepts and critical appraisal
Salim Yusuf, Editor

1 Evidence-based decision making: patient–physician interface, 3
Philip J Devereaux, Marc Pfeffer, Salim Yusuf

2 Obtaining incremental information from diagnostic tests, 14
Raymond J Gibbons

3 Clinical trials and meta-analysis, 26
Jonathan R Emberson, Colin Baigent

4 Understanding concepts related to health economics, 38
Mark A Hlatky

5 Major vascular complications in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: magnitude of the problem, risk prediction, surveillance, and prevention, 47
Philip J Devereaux, Matthew Chan, John Eikelboom

6 Implementing evidence-based medicine in cardiology, 63
Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Thomas T Tsai, Jack V Tu

7 The application of evidence-based medicine to employment fitness standards: the transportation industries with special reference to aviation, 79
Michael Joy

Part II: Prevention of cardiovascular diseases
Salim Yusuf and John A Cairns, Editors

8 Global perspective on cardiovascular disease, 95
K Srinath Reddy

9 Avoidance of worldwide vascular deaths and total deaths from smoking, 111
Prabhat Jha, Prem Mony, James Moore, Witold Zatonski

10 Tobacco and cardiovascular disease: achieving smoking cessation in cardiac patients, 125
Andrew Pipe

11 Lipids and cardiovascular disease, 138
Malcolm Law

12 Use of lipid-lowering agents in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, 147
R Alan Failor, Jeffrey L Probstfi eld

13 Blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, 165
Curt D Furberg, Bruce M Psaty, Elsayed Z Soliman

14 Dysglycemia and the risk of cardiovascular events, 179
Hertzel C Gerstein, Zubin Punthakee

15 Physical activity and exercise in cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation, 190
Ray W Squires

16 Psychosocial factors, 201
Annika Rosengren

17 The social determinants of cardiovascular disease, 211
Martin McKee, Clara K Chow

18 Obesity, 221
Raj S Padwal, Arya M Sharma

19 Ethnicity and cardiovascular disease, 235
Clara K Chow, Sonia S Anand, Salim Yusuf

20 Fetal origins of coronary artery disease, 258
Katherine M Morrison, Stephanie Atkinson, Koon K Teo

21 Genetics of coronary heart disease, 268
Michael S Cunnington, Bernard D Keavney

22 Molecular genetics of cardiovascular disorders, 288
Ali J Marian, Robert Roberts

23 Diet and cardiovascular disease, 304
K Srinath Reddy

24 Integrating approaches to prevention of cardiovascular disease, 328
David A Wood, Kornelia Kotseva

Part IIIa: Stable coronary artery disease
John A Cairns and Bernard J Gersh, Editors

25 Medical management of stable coronary artery disease, 345
William E Boden

26 Percutaneous intervention, 357
David A Wood, Rohit Khurana, Christopher E Buller

27 Surgical coronary artery revascularization, 379
Morgan L Brown, Thoralf M Sundt III

28 Comparisons of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting, 392
Arashk Motiei, Thoralf M Sundt III, Charanjit S Rihal

Part IIIb: Acute coronary syndromes
John A Cairns and Bernard J Gersh, Editors

29 Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 409
Pierre Theroux, John A Cairns

30 Early prehospital management of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 444
Robert C Welsh, Paul W Armstrong

31 Reperfusion therapies for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 456
Joseph B Muhlestein, Jeffrey L Anderson

32 Antithrombotic therapies for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 475
Andrew J Lucking, Keith A A Fox

33 Complications after myocardial infarction, 495
Peter L Thompson

34 An integrated approach to the management of patients after the early phase of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 516
Pedro L Sánchez, Francisco Fernández- Avilés

Part IIIc: Arrhythmias
A John Camm and John A Cairns, Editors

35 Atrial fibrillation: rhythm and rate control therapies, 531
Irina Savelieva, Albert L Waldo, A John Camm

36 Atrial fi brillation: upstream therapies, 568
Antonios Kourliouros, Irina Savelieva, Marjan Jahangiri, A John Camm

37 Atrial fibrillation: antithrombotic therapy, 581
John A Cairns, Stuart Connolly

38 Ablation therapy for atrial fi brillation, 596
Conor D Barrett, Chi Keong Ching, Luigi Di Biase, Claude S Elayi, David J Burkhardt, Rodney Horton, Andrea Natale

39 Supraventricular tachycardia, 606
Erica D Penny-Peterson, Gerald V Naccarelli

40 Prevention and treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death, 619
Carlos A Morillo, Adrian Baranchuk

41 Pacemaker therapy, including cardiac resynchronization therapy, 636
William D Toff, A John Camm

42 Syncope, 673
David G Benditt, Fei Lu, Scott Sakaguchi

43 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 692
Michael Colquhoun

44 Arrhythmias due to monogenic disorders, 706
Dawood Darbar, Prince Kannankeril, Dan M L Roden

45 Arrhythmiagenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, 721
Deirdre Ward, Perry M Elliott

Part IIId: Specifi c cardiovascular disorders: left ventricular dysfunction
Salim Yusuf, Editor

46 Epidemiology and prevention of heart failure and management of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 735
J Paul Rocchiccioli, John J V McMurray

47 Management of overt heart failure, 756
Paul J Hauptman, Karl Swedberg

48 Acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, 784
Leslie T Cooper Jr, Oyere K Onuma

49 Management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 796
Barry J Maron

50 Infective and infi ltrative cardiomyopathies, 808
Stavros Kounas, Perry M Elliott

51 Chagas’ heart disease, 823
J Antonio Marin-Neto, Anis Rassi Jr, Benedito Carlos Maciel, Marcus Vinicius Simões, André Schmidt

Part IIIe: Specifi c cardiovascular disorders: pericardial disease
Bernard J Gersh, Editor

52 Pericardial disease: an evidence-based approach to clinical management, 845
Faisal F Syed, Bongani M Mayosi

Part IIIf: Specifi c cardiovascular disorders: valvular heart disease
Bernard J Gersh, Editor

53 Rheumatic heart disease: prevention and acute treatment, 861
Bongani M Mayosi, Patrick J Commerford

54 Mitral valve disease: indications for surgery, 869
Blase A Carabello

55 Surgical indications in aortic valve disease, 878
Sunil Mankad, Heidi M Connolly, Shahbudin H Rahimtoola

56 Non-surgical aortic valve therapy: balloon valvuloplasty and transcatheter aortic valve replacement, 896
Robert H Boone, John G Webb

57 Balloon valvuloplasty: mitral valve, 913
Zoltan G Turi

58 Valve repair and choice of valve, 927
Shafie S Fazel, Tirone E David

59 Infective endocarditis, 941
Zainab Samad, Andrew Wang

60 Antithrombotic therapy after heart valve replacement, 957
Jack C J Sun, John W Eikelboom

Part IIIg: Specifi c cardiovascular disorders: other conditions
Bernard J Gersh and Salim Yusuf, Editors

61 Stroke, 971
Brian H Buck, Ashfaq Shuaib, Craig Anderson

62 Heart disease and pregnancy, 993
Rachel M Wald, Samuel C Siu

63 Adult congenital heart disease, 1006
Elisabeth Bédard, Michael A Gatzoulis

64 Venous thromboembolic disease, 1032
Lori-Ann Linkins, Clive Kearon

65 Peripheral arterial disease, 1050
Catherine McGorrian, Sonia S Anand

66 Cardiac risk in those undergoing non-cardiac surgery, 1068
Ameeth Vedre, Kim A Eagle

67 Clinical management of diseases of the aorta, 1079
Thoralf M Sundt III

68 Cardiac transplantation: indications and postoperative management, 1099
Barry Boilson, Sudhir Kushwaha

69 Renal dysfunction, 1110
Johannes F E Mann, Ernesto L Schiffrin

70 Pulmonary hypertension, 1118
Brendan P Madden

Part IV: Clinical applications
Ernest L Fallen, Editor

71 Clinical applications of external evidence, 1135
Ernest L Fallen, Salim Yusuf

72 Stable angina: choice of PCI versus CABG versus drugs, 1138
William S Weintraub

73 Non-ST segment acute coronary syndrome, 1142
David Fitchett

74 Acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, 1152
Ernest L Fallen

75 Secondary prevention strategies post myocardial infarction, 1157
Jacques Genest

76 Heart failure, 1164
Michael M Givertz, Garrick C Stewart

77 Atrial fibrillation, 1170
Michael Klein

78 The case for and against implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with coronary artery disease, 1174
Jeffrey S Healey

79 Bradyarrhythmias – choice of pacemakers, 1178
Pablo B Nery, Carlos A Morillo

80 Peripheral arterial disease with suspect coronary artery disease, 1183
Victor Aboyans, Michael H Criqui

81 Valvular heart disease: timing of surgery, 1187
Jon-David R Schwalm, Victor Chu

Index, 1191

The colour plate section can be found facing p. 941

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Salim Yusuf, Professor of Medicine, Heart and Stroke Foundation Chair in Cardiology, and Director of the Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.

John Cairns Dean, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia.

John Camm, Professor of Clinical Cardiology and Head of the Department of Cardiac & Vascular Sciences at St George's, University of London.

Ernest Fallen, Professor Emeritus in Cardiology and Tutor in Cardiology Residency Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.

Bernard Gersh, Professor of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

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"Edited by a cadre of highly respected clinical researchers and academicians, the third edition will be a welcome addition to the shelves of cardiologists or primary care physicians with an interest in the dynamic field of cardiology." (JAMA, August 11, 2010)

"The text is recommended as a reference text for cardiac centres, cardiologists, cardiac nurse specialists and academic and research institutions." (Nursing Standard, April 2010)

"The is a useful addition to the field of cardiology that expands on current comprehensive books ... .The authors have succeeded in creating a multidimensional reference that fulfills their objectives, explaining the how and why of specific interventions." (Doody's, April 2010)

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