Print this page Share

Invisible Enemy: The African American Freedom Struggle after 1965

ISBN: 978-1-4051-6717-8
256 pages
April 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Invisible Enemy: The African American Freedom Struggle after 1965 (1405167173) cover image


This highly accessible account of the evolution of American racism outlines how ‘colorblind’ approaches to discrimination ensured the perpetuation of racial inequality in the United States well beyond the 1960s.
  • A highly accessible account of the evolution of American racism, its perpetuation, and black people’s struggles for equality in the post-civil rights era
  • Guides students to a better understanding of the experiences of black Americans and their ongoing struggles for justice, by highlighting the interconnectedness of African American history with that of the nation as a whole
  • Highlights the economic and political functions that racism has served throughout the nation’s history
  • Discusses the continuation of the freedom movement beyond the 1960s to provide a comprehensive new historiography of racial equality and social justice
See More

Table of Contents



1. The Never Ending Story: American Racism from Slavery to the Civil Rights Movement.

2. From the Freedom Movement to Free Markets: Racializing the War on Poverty and Colorblinding Jim Crow.

3. A System without Signs: The Invisible Racism of the Post-Civil Rights Era.

4. Fighting Jim Crow’s Shadow: Struggles for Racial Equality after 1965.

5. To See or Not to See: Debates over Affirmative Action.

6. Is This America? Electoral Politics after the Voting Rights Act.

7 Fir$st Cla$$ Citizen$hip: Struggles for Economic Justice.

8. All Around the World: The Freedom Struggle in a Global Context.



See More

Author Information

Greta de Jong is Associate Professor at the University of Nevada, Reno. Her research focuses on the connections between race and class and the ways that African Americans have fought for economic as well as political rights from the end of slavery through the twenty-first century. She is the author of A Different Day: African American Struggles for Justice in Rural Louisiana, 1900--1970 (2002).
See More


"The book is an important contribution in understanding a still largely overlooked period of contemporary history. Highly recommended. All levels/libraries." (Choice , 1 April 2011)

"Even so, the thematic unity and clear elucidation of the nature and persistence of systemic racism in American society and of white Americans ' blindness to it makes the book a valuable study that
should engage student audiences and the reading public." (Journal of American History, 1 March 2011)

“A remarkable scholarly work that illuminates why the struggle for equal rights did not achieve full racial equality. . . de Jong draws attention to the oppressive economic and political  forces that have yet to be overcome, even as Americans celebrate the dream of Martin Luther King, Jr.” 
Clayborne Carson, Founding director of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute at Stanford University

“De Jong writes with passion and grace.  Her historically-grounded treatment of both racism and black Americans' self-directed struggles for justice make this study an invaluable guide to the complexities of race in contemporary society.”
William L. Van Deburg, author of New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975

See More

More in this series

Back to Top