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Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry

ISBN: 978-1-4051-7033-8
344 pages
May 2009, Wiley-Blackwell
Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry (1405170336) cover image
The Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry is a comprehensive resource for all students of dentistry that provides uniquely integrated coverage of medicine, surgery, pharmacology, therapeutics, pathology and microbiology. It aims to provide its readers with the medical context of dentistry, to promote better understanding of how to provide effective dental treatment to patients affected by diseases and conditions.

The Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry is structured around the systems of the body and includes chapters on immunological disease, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory medicine, gastroenterology, dermatology, musculoskeletal disorders and neurological and special senses. A key aspect of the book is the relevance of particular diseases and/or their drug treatment to dentistry and in turn to patient dental management. Additional chapters are therefore provided on topics such as clinical examination and history taking, inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, infection control, pain and anxiety control, and care of the elderly.

Filled with useful features and written in a lucid and accessible style, this book will provide its readers with a sound and accessible grounding in human diseases and their drug treatment and how they relate to dental care.

  • Includes sections on all major diseases and conditions, describing aetiology, symptoms and treatment
  • Places dentistry in a medical context, providing guidance on examination and treatment protocols
  • Features information on drug treatment and planning dental care around it
  • Illustrated with helpful clinical photographs, showing diseases and conditions
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Contributors

Preface

1 Clinical examination and history taking

Components of a medical history

Clinical observations in the clothed patient

Specific lesions

2 Inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs

Cell and tissue injury

Wound healing

Inflammation

Pathogenesis of chronic inflammation

Anti-inflammatory drugs

3 Principles if infection and infection control

3A Sterilisation, disinfection and antiseptics

Sterilisation and disinfection

Antiseptics

3B Principles of infection and infection control, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections

Introduction

Use of the laboratory in the diagnosis of bacterial infection

Antibacterial drugs

Antibacterial use in dentistry

3C Viruses relevant to dentistry and antiviral agents

Viruses relevant to dentistry

Diagnosis and treatment of virus infections

Antiviral agents

3D Infection with immunodeficiency virus and implications for the oral cavity

Infection with HIV

Oral manifestations of HIV disease

Diagnosis of HIV infection

3E Fungi and antifungal agents

Fungi

Antifungal agents

4 Immunological disease

Introduction

Overview of a normal immune response

What is immunodeficiency?

Examples of specific primary immunodeficiences which may be seen in dental practice

Implications of immunodeficiency in dental practice

Allergy in dental practice

Type 1 hypersensitivity (allergy)

Causes of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions in dental practice

Other reactions

Autoimmune disease

Immunosuppressants

5 Cardiovascular disorders

5A Introduction to cardiovascular disease

The heart and circulation

Cardiovascular pathology

Thrombosis, embolism, ischaemia and infarction

Clinical features of cardiovascular disease

5B Heart failure

Introduction

Clinical aspects of heart failure

Treatment of heart failure

5C Cardiac arrhythmias

Pathophysiology

Drugs used to manage cardiac arrhythmias

5D Valvular heart disease

Introduction

Pathology of valvular heart disease

5E Hypertension

Measurement of blood pressure

Drugs used to treat hypertension

Treatment of hypertension

5F Anticoagulants, drugs affecting blood clotting

Heparin

Oral anticoagulants

Uses of anticoagulants

Antiplatelet drugs

5G Dental implications of cardiovascular disease

Hypertensive patients

Patients post-myocardial infarction

Other aspects of management

Smoking and the cardiovascular system

5H Peripheral vascular and cardiac surgical disorders

Peripheral vascular disorders

Cardiac surgical disorders

6 Respiratory disorders

Introduction

Clinical assessment

Asthma

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Lung cancer

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)

Respiratory tract infections

Cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis

Pulmonary embolism

Fibrotic lung disease

Management of inhaled foreign body

Respiratory disorders and dentistry

7 Gastrointestinal disorders

Introduction

Relevant points in the history

Examination

Liver disease

Nutritional disorders

Dental aspects of GI system disorders

8 Renal disorders

Introduction

Structure of the kidneys

Normal renal function

Clinical presentation of abnormal renal function

Investigation of renal dysfunction

The kidney and systemic disease

Dental aspects relating to renal patients

9 Neurology and special senses

9A Neurology

Head injury

Types of brain injury

9B ENT

Deafness

Tinnitus

Vertigo

Dizziness

Infections and inflammatory disorders of the ear, nose, sinuses and tonsils

9C Neurological disorders and dental practice

Relevant points in the history

General examination

Neurological disorders: management considerations in dental practice

9D Stroke, speech and swallowing

Stroke

Speech

Swallowing

9E Ophthalmology

Measurement of vision

Common causes of visual loss

The acute red eye

Conditions of common interest

Ophthalmic complications of dental anaesthesia

9F Anticonvulsant and anti-Parkinsonian drugs

Anticonvulsant drugs

Anti-Parkinsonian drugs

10 Musculoskeletal disorders

Introduction

Osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Reactive arthritis

Other joint disorders

Disorders mainly involving soft tissues

Management of fractures and joint replacements

Metabolic bone disease and calcium

Investigations of bone disease

Drugs used in bone disease

Parathyroid disorders

Important bone conditions

Other bone disorders

Dental treatment in patients with musculoskeletal disorders

11 Skin disorders

Infections

Viral infections

Immunologically mediated skin diseases

Facial eruptions

Pigmented lesions

Malignant epidermal tumours

12 Endocrinology and diabetes

Endocrinology

The adrenal glands

The thyroid gland

The pituitary gland

The parathyroid glands

Diabetes mellitus

Oral contraceptives

Pregnancy

Other endocrine conditions of relevance

Dental aspects in endocrine patients

13 Haematology

13A General haematology, haematooncology

Normal haemopoiesis

Haemoglobin

Anaemia

Haemoglobinopathies

Multiple myeloma

Bone marrow failure syndromes

Lymphomas

13B Haemostasis

Overview of normal haemostasis

Inherited bleeding disorders

Acquired disorders of haemostasis

Warfarin and dental surgery

13C Transfusion medicine

Introduction

Blood group systems

Red cell antibodies

Blood components

Hospital pre-transfusion testing

Platelets

Fresh frozen plasma

Risks of transfusion

14 Pain and anxiety control

Local anaesthetics

Vasoconstrictors

Adverse effects of dental local anaesthesia

Drugs used in conscious sedation

15 Adverse drug reactions and interactions

Adverse drug reactions

Drug interactions

16 General oncology

Introduction

Disorders of growth and differentiation

Neoplasia

Clinical oncology

Tumour identification and diagnosis

Introduction to head and neck oncology

Oral complications of malignancy

Palliative and terminal care

The future

17 Child health

Development

Child health surveillance

Respiratory infections in childhood

Oral infections

Clefts of the lip and palate

Child physical abuse

18 Care of the elderly

Ageing

Features of illness in old age

Care settings for older people

History taking

Examination

General principles of management

Prescribing for older dental patients

19 Psychiatric disorders

19A General psychiatry

Introduction

Anxiety disorders

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

Hypochondriasis

Psychogenic pain

Eating disorders

Substance misuse

Schizophrenia

Mood disorders

Specific groups for special consideration: children

Specific groups for special consideration: the elderly

Specific groups for special consideration: people with learning disabilities

Capacity and consent

Referral to psychiatric services

19B Drug abuse

Alcohol

Smoking

Cannabis

Heroin and methadone

Cocaine

Amphetamines and ecstasy

Hallucinogens

Solvent abuse

Anabolic steroids and performance enhancers

19C Anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs

Anxiolytic drugs

Hypnotic drugs

20 Medical emergencies

Introduction

Loss of consciousness

Fainting (vaso-vagal syncope)

Chest pain

The diabetic patient

Hypersensitivity reactions

Fits

Cardiac arrest

Asthma

Hyperventilation

Choking

Adrenal crisis

Stroke

Local anaesthetic emergencies

Sedation emergencies

Emergencies arising from impaired haemostasis

Appendix: normal reference ranges

Index

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Dr Mark Greenwood is a Consultant and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne. He is qualified in both dentistry and medicine and has fellowships in Dental Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Surgery. A major interest is medical and dental education. He has written several publications in peer reviewed journals, mainly relating to medicine in dentistry and has published a book on the same subject.

Professor Robin Seymour is at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. He has published 8 books on topics related to human diseases, especially in the area of pharmacology.

Likewise, Dr John Meechan has a similar profile. Other authors, Max Robinson, Iain Mcleod and Roger Jay provide input in the area of pathology, radiology and general medicine respectively.

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· Comprehensive guide to human diseases as they relate to dentistry

· Explains relevance to dentistry of particular diseases and their treatment

· Enables dentists to develop treatment plans for medically compromised dental patients

· Provides unique integrated information on medicine, surgery, pharmacology, therapeutics, pathology and microbiology

· Illustrated in colour throughout

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