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Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay, 5th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-4051-7616-3
368 pages
March 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay, 5th Edition (1405176164) cover image

Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay is first and foremost a practical book, a distillation of Sophie Levitt’s considerable experience in treating those affected by cerebral palsy. This fifth edition outlines therapeutic approaches and suggests treatment and management options, providing a wealth of practical information, supported by clear diagrams and photographs, on assessment, management and treatment.  The book emphasises an eclectic, holistic approach, and integrates current ideas on motor control and motor learning in a further development of Levitt’s Collaborative Learning Approach.  This new edition provides greater commentary on evidence-based practice, as well as practical, updated information on the use of botulinum toxin, orthopaedic surgery and the therapist's role following these procedures.
 
The book is aimed primarily at practitioners and students concerned with the developmental abilities and difficulties of children, particularly physiotherapists and occupational therapists working in paediatrics. Doctors and other healthcare professionals will also find useful insights in the book. Parents, families and also teachers of people with cerebral palsy can learn more about therapy by consulting the book together with their therapist.

  • Written by an international authority in the field
  • Extensively revised, updated and well referenced
  • Emphasises an eclectic, functional and holistic approach
  • Highly illustrated
  • Promotes positive relationships between therapists, people with cerebral palsy and their families

From the Foreword:

"I greatly welcome the fifth edition of this book which brings together the management of cerebral palsies into a comprehensive but readable form… This book is in my view an essential part of both a therapist’s and doctor’s basic understanding of the subject… This book remains essential for those managing children with disability." —Brian Neville, Professor of Childhood Epilepsy, Professor of Paediatric Neurology, University College London, Institute of Child Health/Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust.

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Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 The clinical picture for therapy and management

The motor dysfunction

Associated impairments and disabilities

Aetiology

Clinical picture and development

Classification

Spastic cerebral palsy

Athetoid (dyskinetic, dystonic) cerebral palsy

Ataxic cerebral palsy

Common features in all types of cerebral palsies

Motor delay

Principles of learning and therapy

Summary

2 A collaborative learning approach

Working with parents

Collaboration with other adults

The collaborative learning approach

Opportunities to discover what parents and child want to achieve

Opportunities to clarify what is needed for these achievements, to recognise what they already know and can do and to find out what they still need to learn and do

Participation in the selection and use of methods

Participation in the evaluation of progress

Parent–child interaction

Helping a child to learn motor control

Observation of parent and child interaction

Emotional support

Parents’ health

Teamwork with parents

Siblings

Records

Alternative and complementary treatments

Contraindications

Summary

3 Outline of treatment approaches

Muscle education and braces

Progressive pattern movements

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitations (PNF)

Neuromotor development

Neurodevelopmental treatment (Bobath approach)

Sensory stimulation for activation and inhibition

Reflex creeping and other reflex reactions

Conductive education

Sensory integration

Adjuncts to therapy

Systems-based task-oriented approach

Mobility opportunities via education (MOVE)

Contemporary theories

4 Evidence-based practice

Research and clinical studies

Research on treatment approaches

Theoretical grounds

Research studies

Reviews of research studies

Studies of specific treatment systems

Research on specific procedures

Other research

Clinical experience with evidence-based practice

The appraisal of research studies for therapy

5 Synthesis of treatment systems

The eclectic viewpoint in therapy

Synthesis of treatment systems

The postural mechanisms

Voluntary motion

Perceptual-motor function

principles for a synthesis of therapy systems

Developmental training

Treatment of abnormal tone

Training of movement patterns

Use of afferent stimuli

Management of deformity

6 Learning motor function

Learning methods

The development of a child’s attention and learning

Practical ideas to promote attention and learning

Learning a motor function

A child’s own goals and strategies

Task analysis

Cues for learning

Verbal guidance

Rewards

Practice and experience

Summary

7 The older person with cerebral palsy

Role of the physiotherapist and occupational therapist

Studies of function

Issues of concern in the older person

Motor abilities and self-care activities

Deformities

Healthy lifestyle

Develop appropriate community mobility

Training of self-care and cosmetic appearance

Knowledge about the condition

Therapeutic motor activities

Measures

8 Assessment for therapy and daily function

Approach to assessment

Assessment and measurements

Specific functional items

Measures of upper extremity and hand function

Methods of observation of gait

Grading in assessments

Additional assessment required

Records

Summary

9 Treatment procedures and management

Motor training

Motor development and the child with severe visual impairment

Prone development

Supine development

Development of sitting

Development of standing and walking

Abnormal postures in standing (see Figs 9.166–9.169)

Lower limb orthoses for standing and walking

Development of hand function

10 Motor function and the child’s daily life

Motor function in feeding, dressing, toileting, washing, bathing, play and communication

Motor function and perception

Motor function and communication, speech and language

Development of communication – brief summary

Development of feeding – brief summary

Development of dressing – brief summary

Development of play – brief outline

Techniques for carrying the child correctly (Figs 10.6–10.11)

11 Management of deformity

Causes of deformities and aims of therapy and management

Deformities and gait

Therapy and daily care

Review of deformities

Arm deformity

Deformities of trunk and neck

General considerations related to surgery

Pre-operative physiotherapy

Post-operative physiotherapy and care

12 Therapeutic group work

General management of groups

Selection of children

The programme

Summary

Appendix 1: Developmental levels

Physical ability assessment guide

Prone

Supine

Sitting

Standing and walking

Wheelchair use

Appendix 2: Equipment

Basic equipment

Aids to activities of daily living

General

References

Index

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Sophie Levitt is a specialist physiotherapist and tutor in developmental paediatrics and neurology. Her career has encompassed high profile therapy posts in London. She currently lectures and consults to a variety of professionals involved in the field of cerebral palsy, both in the UK and overseas.
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"The chapters in this book are well laid out, and the book will be very useful for students and new practitioners, as well as providing an update for experienced physical and occupational therapists."
Ann M. Reiner, 1 August 2010

"Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay by Sophie Levitt is a book with a lot of practical information … a chapter on evidence-based practice has been included and that is very good … the numerous illustrations are very clear and informative"
Eva Beckung, Acta Paediatrica, 2011

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