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Addiction Research Methods

Peter G. Miller (Editor), John Strang (Editor), Peter M. Miller (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-7663-7
400 pages
April 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Addiction Research Methods (1405176636) cover image

Description

Addiction Research Methods’ is a comprehensive handbook for health professionals, policy-makers and researchers working and training in the field of addiction.

The book provides a clear, comprehensive and practical guide to research design, methods and analysis within the context of the field of alcohol and other drugs. The reader is introduced to fundamental principles and key issues; and is orientated to available sources of information and key literature.

Written by a team of internationally acclaimed contributors, the book is divided into six major sections: Introduction; Research Design; Basic Toolbox; Biological Models; Specialist Methods; and Analytical Methods. Each chapter offers an introduction to the background and development of the discipline in question, its key features and applications, how it compares to other methods/analyses and its advantages and limitations.

FEATURES

  • List of useful websites and assistive technology.
  • Case study examples
  • List of useful hermeneutics
  • Recommended reading list
  • Contains exercises to help the reader to develop their skills.
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Table of Contents

List of contributors ix

Acknowledgements xiii

1 Introduction 1
Peter G. Miller, John Strang and Peter M. Miller

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Where to start? 1

1.3 Does theory matter? 2

1.4 The literature review 3

1.5 Which method suits my question – is a screwdriver better than a saw? 4

1.6 Focus and structure of the book 5

1.7 Terminology 6

1.8 The need for a wider perspective and more careful selection of study design 8

Section I: Research Fundamentals

2 Reliability and validity 11
Gerhard Bühringer and Monika Sassen

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Background: Reliability and validity in addiction research 11

2.3 Reliability and validity in addiction research 16

2.4 Strengthening the quality of your results and conclusions: A brief checklist to improve reliability and validity 19

2.5 Summary 24

3 Sampling strategies for addiction research 27
Lisa Kakinami and Kenneth R. Conner

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Probability sampling 27

3.3 Non-probability sampling 32

3.4 Qualitative sampling 36

3.5 Selecting your sampling approach 37

3.6 Technical considerations 37

3.7 Conclusion 40

4 Experimental design issues in addiction research 43
Robert West

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 What constitutes an experiment? 43

4.3 Is an experiment appropriate? 44

4.4 What kind of experimental design? 44

4.5 What intervention and comparison conditions? 48

4.6 What target population and recruitment strategy? 50

4.7 What sample size? 52

4.8 What outcome measures? 53

4.9 What statistical analyses? 55

4.10 Conclusions 56

5 Qualitative methods and theory in addictions research 59
Tim Rhodes and Ross Coomber

5.1 Introduction 59

5.2 Theory 59

5.3 A recurring debate 62

5.4 Principles for practice 63

5.5 Data generation 64

5.6 Analysis 70

5.7 Conclusions 73

6 Ethical issues in alcohol, other drugs and addiction-related research 79
Peter G. Miller, Adrian Carter and Wayne Hall

6.1 Introduction 79

6.2 Key concepts 79

6.3 Major ethical frameworks 80

6.4 Addiction-specific ethical issues 83

6.5 Writing an ethics application 87

6.6 Ethical processes in different countries 87

6.7 Influence of funding body 88

6.8 Ethical dissemination 89

6.9 Conclusion 89

Section II: Basic Toolbox

7 Surveys and questionnaire design 97
Lorraine T. Midanik and Krista Drescher-Burke

7.1 Introduction 97

7.2 Brief history 97

7.3 Survey research designs 98

7.4 Advantages and limitations of survey research designs 99

7.5 Modes of data collection 100

7.6 Questionnaire design 101

7.7 Piloting the questionnaire 104

7.8 Technological assistance 105

7.9 Common challenges 106

8 Interviews 109
Barbara S. McCrady, Benjamin Ladd, Leah Vermont and Julie Steele

8.1 Introduction 109

8.2 Why interviews? 109

8.3 Reliability and validity of self-reported information 110

8.4 Interviewing skills 112

8.5 Types of interviews 116

8.6 Types of interview data 118

8.7 Technological resources 120

8.8 Summary 120

9 Scales for research in the addictions 127
Shane Darke

9.1 Introduction 127

9.2 Screening instruments 128

9.3 Frequency of substance use 130

9.4 Multi-dimensional scales 133

9.5 Dependence 135

9.6 Psychopathology 139

9.7 Summary 143

10 Biomarkers of alcohol and other drug use 147
Scott H. Stewart, Anton Goldmann, Tim Neumann and Claudia Spies

10.1 Introduction 147

10.2 Uses of state biomarkers in research 147

10.3 General principles when considering biomarkers 149

10.4 Summary 156

11 Quantitative data analysis 163
Jim Lemon, Louisa Degenhardt, Tim Slade and Katherine Mills

11.1 Introduction 163

11.2 Imagining data – planning the study 163

11.3 Collecting data – gathering the measurements 165

11.4 Organising data – structuring the measurements 166

11.5 Describing data – what do the data look like? 167

11.6 Manipulating data 171

11.7 Relationships within the data 173

11.8 Interpreting relationships within the data 177

11.9 Conclusion and exercises 178

Section III: Real World Research Methods

12 Applied research methods 187
David Best and Ed Day

12.1 Introduction 187

12.2 Auditing clinical activity in the city 189

12.3 Needs assessment 190

12.4 Qualitative research approaches 192

12.5 Evaluation research 193

12.6 The audit cycle 197

12.7 Measuring outcomes in applied settings 197

12.8 Overview and conclusions 198

13 Conducting clinical research 201
Jalie A. Tucker and Cathy A. Simpson

13.1 Conducting clinical research 201

13.2 Discussion and conclusions: The role of the practitioner-researcher 211

Section IV: Biological Methods

14 Psychopharmacology 223
Jason White and Nick Lintzeris

14.1 Introduction 223

14.2 Psychopharmacology: drugs, behaviour, physiology and the brain 223

14.3 Measuring drug effects 226

14.4 Human drug self-administration 229

14.5 Drug withdrawal and craving 231

14.6 Summary 232

15 Imaging 235
Alastair Reid and David Nutt

15.1 Introduction 235

15.2 Introduction to neuroimaging 235

15.3 Imaging techniques 235

15.4 Image analysis 241

15.5 Some considerations when setting up an imaging study 244

16 Genes, genetics, genomics and epigenetics 249
David Ball and Irene Guerrini

16.1 Introduction 249

16.2 Animal studies 252

16.3 Quantitative genetics 254

16.4 Molecular genetics 256

16.5 Why bother? 263

16.6 An addiction gene 263

16.7 Ethics 264

16.8 Concluding remarks 264

17 Animal models 269
Leigh V. Panlilio, Charles W. Schindler and Steven R. Goldberg

17.1 Introduction 269

17.2 Basic principles of behaviour: Reinforcement 269

17.3 Basic principles of behaviour: Effects of environmental cues 270

17.4 Drug self-administration: Simple schedules 270

17.5 Drug self-administration: Using dose–effect curves to assess the effects of treatments 271

17.6 Drug self-administration: Measuring the reinforcing effects of drugs 271

17.7 Drug self-administration: Modelling the effects of environmental cues with second-order schedules 273

17.8 Drug self-administration: Reinstatement 275

17.9 Drug self-administration: Modelling the uncontrolled and compulsive nature of addiction 275

17.10 Intracranial drug self-administration and intracranial electrical self-stimulation 276

17.11 Drug self-administration: Advantages and disadvantages 278

17.12 Conditioned place preference 278

17.13 Drug discrimination 279

17.14 Locomotor activity 279

17.15 Adjunct procedures 281

17.16 Integration of behavioural and neuroscience techniques 281

Section V: Specialist Methods

18 Understanding contexts: Methods and analysis in ethnographic research on drugs 287
Jeremy Northcote and David Moore

18.1 Introduction 287

18.2 Tracing the history of ethnographic drug research 288

18.3 Designing ethnographic research 289

18.4 Getting started 290

18.5 Collecting data 292

18.6 Analysing ethnographic data 293

18.7 Producing ethnographic texts 294

18.8 Conclusion 295

19 Epidemiology 299
Mark Stoov´e and Paul Dietze

19.1 Introduction 299

19.2 Origins of epidemiology 299

19.3 Definitions and uses of epidemiology in alcohol and other drug research 299

19.4 Descriptive epidemiology 300

19.5 Epidemiological research designs 301

19.6 Analysis of case-control and cohort studies 308

19.7 Experimental study designs 310

19.8 Potential sources of error in epidemiology 311

19.9 Summary 314

20 Meta-analysis: Summarising findings on addiction intervention effects 319
John W. Finney and Anne Moyer

20.1 Introduction 319

20.2 Overview of meta-analytic methods 319

20.3 Issues in meta-analyses of addiction interventions 327

20.4 Limitations 331

20.5 Conclusion 331

21 Drug trend monitoring 337
Paul Griffiths and Jane Mounteney

21.1 Introduction 337

21.2 Point of departure – divergent policy perspectives, difficulties in definition and temporal relevance 337

21.3 International, national and local drug monitoring mechanisms 338

21.4 Challenges in monitoring illicit drug use 339

21.5 An overview of common information sources and some of their limitations 341

21.6 Issues for the interpretation and analysis of data 345

21.7 Mixed methods 347

21.8 Triangulation 347

21.9 Reliability and validity 348

21.10 Reflections in a broken mirror: Pragmatic and imperfect solutions to an intractable problem 349

22 Drug policy research 355
Jonathan P. Caulkins and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula

22.1 Introduction 355

22.2 Methods for quantitatively comparing an intervention’s benefits and costs 356

22.3 Issues that arise in quantifying an intervention’s benefits and costs 360

22.4 Methods for estimating an intervention’s effects 362

22.5 Modelling methods 365

22.6 Summary 366

Section VI: Beyond Research

23 Concluding remarks 375
Peter G. Miller, John Strang and Peter M. Miller

23.1 Publishing addiction science 375

23.2 Final thoughts 376

Index 377

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Author Information

Peter G Miller is NHMRC Howard Florey Fellow in the School of Psychology at Deakin University, Australia. He is Commissioning Editor for the journal, Addiction.

John Strang is Professor of the Addictions and Director of the National Addiction Centre, University of London. He is also Clinical Director of the addictions treatment services at the South London & Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.

Peter M Miller is Professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Addictive Behaviors.

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