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Addiction Research Methods

Peter G. Miller (Editor), John Strang (Editor), Peter M. Miller (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-7663-7
400 pages
April 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Addiction Research Methods (1405176636) cover image
Addiction Research Methods’ is a comprehensive handbook for health professionals, policy-makers and researchers working and training in the field of addiction.

The book provides a clear, comprehensive and practical guide to research design, methods and analysis within the context of the field of alcohol and other drugs. The reader is introduced to fundamental principles and key issues; and is orientated to available sources of information and key literature.

Written by a team of internationally acclaimed contributors, the book is divided into six major sections: Introduction; Research Design; Basic Toolbox; Biological Models; Specialist Methods; and Analytical Methods. Each chapter offers an introduction to the background and development of the discipline in question, its key features and applications, how it compares to other methods/analyses and its advantages and limitations.

FEATURES

  • List of useful websites and assistive technology.
  • Case study examples
  • List of useful hermeneutics
  • Recommended reading list
  • Contains exercises to help the reader to develop their skills.
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List of contributors

1 Introduction

Peter G. Miller, John Strang and Peter M. Miller

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Where to start?

1.3 Does theory matter?

1.4 The literature review

1.5 Which method suits my question – is a screwdriver better than a saw?

1.6 Focus and structure of the book

1.7 Terminology

1.8 The need for a wider perspective and more careful selection of study design

Section I: Research Fundamentals

2 Reliability and validity

Gerhard Bühringer and Monika Sassen

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Background: Reliability and validity in addiction research

2.3 Reliability and validity in addiction research

2.4 Strengthening the quality of your results and conclusions: A brief checklist to improve reliability and validity

2.5 Summary

3 Sampling strategies for addiction research

Lisa Kakinami and Kenneth R. Conner

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Probability sampling

3.3 Non-probability sampling

3.4 Qualitative sampling

3.5 Selecting your sampling approach

3.6 Technical considerations

3.7 Conclusion

4 Experimental design issues in addiction research

Robert West

4.1 Introduction

4.2 What constitutes an experiment?

4.3 Is an experiment appropriate?

4.4 What kind of experimental design

4.5 What intervention and comparison conditions?

4.6 What target population and recruitment strategy?

4.7 What sample size?

4.8 What outcome measures?

4.9 What statistical analyses?

4.10 Conclusions

5 Qualitative methods and theory in addictions research

Tim Rhodes and Ross Coomber

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Theory

5.3 A recurring debate

5.4 Principles for practice

5.5 Data generation

5.6 Analysis

5.7 Conclusions

6 Ethical issues in alcohol, other drugs and addiction-related research

Peter G. Miller, Adrian Carter and Wayne Hall

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Key concepts

6.3 Major ethical frameworks

6.4 Addiction-specific ethical issues

6.5 Writing an ethics application

6.6 Ethical processes in different countries

6.7 Influence of funding body

6.8 Ethical dissemination

6.9 Conclusion

Section II: Basic Toolbox

7 Surveys and questionnaire design

Lorraine T. Midanik and Krista Drescher-Burke

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Brief history

7.3 Survey research designs

7.4 Advantages and limitations of survey research designs

7.5 Modes of data collection

7.6 Questionnaire design

7.7 Piloting the questionnaire

7.8 Technological assistance

7.9 Common challenges

8 Interviews

Barbara S. McCrady, Benjamin Ladd, Leah Vermont and Julie Steele

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Why interviews?

8.3 Reliability and validity of self-reported information

8.4 Interviewing skills

8.5 Types of interviews

8.6 Types of interview data

8.7 Technological resources

8.8 Summary

9 Scales for research in the addictions

Shane Darke

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Screening instruments

9.3 Frequency of substance use

9.4 Multi-dimensional scales

9.5 Dependence

9.6 Psychopathology

9.7 Summary

10 Biomarkers of alcohol and other drug use

Scott H. Stewart, Anton Goldmann, Tim Neumann and Claudia Spies

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Uses of state biomarkers in research

10.3 General principles when considering biomarkers

10.4 Summary

11 Quantitative data analysis

Jim Lemon, Louisa Degenhardt, Tim Slade and Katherine Mills

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Imagining data – planning the study

11.3 Collecting data – gathering the measurements

11.4 Organising data – structuring the measurements

11.5 Describing data – what do the data look like?

11.6 Manipulating data

11.7 Relationships within the data

11.8 Interpreting relationships within the data

11.9 Conclusion and exercises

Section III: Real World Research Methods

12 Applied research methods

David Best and Ed Day

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Auditing clinical activity in the city

12.3 Needs assessment

12.4 Qualitative research approaches

12.5 Evaluation research

12.6 The audit cycle

12.7 Measuring outcomes in applied settings

12.8 Overview and conclusions

13 Conducting clinical research

Jalie A. Tucker and Cathy A. Simpson

13.1 Conducting clinical research

13.2 Discussion and conclusions: The role of the practitioner-researcher

Section IV: Biological Methods

14 Psychopharmacology

Jason White and Nick Lintzeris

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Psychopharmacology: drugs, behaviour, physiology and the brain

14.3 Measuring drug effects

14.4 Human drug self-administration

14.5 Drug withdrawal and craving

14.6 Summary

15 Imaging

Alastair Reid and David Nutt

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Introduction to neuroimaging

15.3 Imaging techniques 235

15.4 Image analysis 241

15.5 Some considerations when setting up an imaging study

16 Genes, genetics, genomics and epigenetics

David Ball and Irene Guerrini

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Animal studies

16.3 Quantitative genetics

16.4 Molecular genetics

16.5 Why bother? 263

16.6 An addiction gene

16.7 Ethics

16.8 Concluding remarks

17 Animal models

Leigh V. Panlilio, Charles W. Schindler and Steven R. Goldberg

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Basic principles of behaviour: Reinforcement

17.3 Basic principles of behaviour: Effects of environmental cues

17.4 Drug self-administration: Simple schedules

17.5 Drug self-administration: Using dose–effect curves to assess the effects of treatments

17.6 Drug self-administration: Measuring the reinforcing effects of drugs

17.7 Drug self-administration: Modelling the effects of environmental cues with second-order schedules

17.8 Drug self-administration: Reinstatement

17.9 Drug self-administration: Modelling the uncontrolled and compulsive nature of addiction

17.10 Intracranial drug self-administration and intracranial electrical self-stimulation

17.11 Drug self-administration: Advantages and disadvantages

17.12 Conditioned place preference

17.13 Drug discrimination

17.14 Locomotor activity

17.15 Adjunct procedures

17.16 Integration of behavioural and neuroscience techniques

Section V: Specialist Methods

18 Understanding contexts: Methods and analysis in ethnographic research on drugs

Jeremy Northcote and David Moore

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Tracing the history of ethnographic drug research

18.3 Designing ethnographic research

18.4 Getting started

18.5 Collecting data

18.6 Analysing ethnographic data

18.7 Producing ethnographic texts

18.8 Conclusion

19 Epidemiology

Mark Stoové and Paul Dietze

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Origins of epidemiology

19.3 Definitions and uses of epidemiology in alcohol and other drug research

19.4 Descriptive epidemiology

19.5 Epidemiological research designs

19.6 Analysis of case-control and cohort studies

19.7 Experimental study designs

19.8 Potential sources of error in epidemiology

19.9 Summary

20 Meta-analysis: Summarising findings on addiction intervention effects

John W. Finney and Anne Moyer

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Overview of meta-analytic methods

20.3 Issues in meta-analyses of addiction interventions

20.4 Limitations

20.5 Conclusion

21 Drug trend monitoring

Paul Griffiths and Jane Mounteney

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Point of departure – divergent policy perspectives, difficulties in definition and temporal relevance

21.3 International, national and local drug monitoring mechanisms

21.4 Challenges in monitoring illicit drug use

21.5 An overview of common information sources and some of their limitations

21.6 Issues for the interpretation and analysis of data

21.7 Mixed methods

21.8 Triangulation

21.9 Reliability and validity

21.10 Reflections in a broken mirror: Pragmatic and imperfect solutions to an intractable problem

22 Drug policy research

Jonathan P. Caulkins and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Methods for quantitatively comparing an intervention’s benefits and costs

22.3 Issues that arise in quantifying an intervention’s benefits and costs

22.4 Methods for estimating an intervention’s effects

22.5 Modelling methods

22.6 Summary

Section VI: Beyond Research

23 Concluding remarks

Peter G. Miller, John Strang and Peter M. Miller

23.1 Publishing addiction science

23.2 Final thoughts

Index

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Peter G Miller is NHMRC Howard Florey Fellow in the School of Psychology at Deakin University, Australia. He is Commissioning Editor for the journal, Addiction.

John Strang is Professor of the Addictions and Director of the National Addiction Centre, University of London. He is also Clinical Director of the addictions treatment services at the South London & Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.

Peter M Miller is Professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Addictive Behaviors.

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