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Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past

Carina Hoorn (Editor), Frank Wesselingh (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-8113-6
464 pages
February 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past (1405181133) cover image
The book focuses on geological history as the critical factor in determining the present biodiversity and landscapes of Amazonia. The different driving mechanisms for landscape evolution are explored by reviewing the history of the Amazonian Craton, the associated sedimentary basins, and the role of mountain uplift and climate change.

This book provdes an insight into the Meso- and Cenozoic record of Amazonia that was characterized by fluvial and long-lived lake systems and a highly diverse flora and fauna. This fauna includes giants such as the ca. 12 m long caiman Purussaurus, but also a varied fish fauna and fragile molluscs, whilst fossil pollen and spores form relics of ancestral swamps and rainforests.

Finally, a review the molecular datasets of the modern Amazonian rainforest and aquatic ecosystem, discussing the possible relations between the origin of Amazonian species diversity and the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evolution of northern South America. The multidisciplinary approach in evaluating the history of Amazonia has resulted in a comprehensive volume that provides novel insights into the evolution of this region.

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Dedication to Thomas van der Hammen vii

List of contributors ix

Prologue xii
Thomas van der Hammen

1 Introduction: Amazonia, landscape and species evolution 1
Carina Hoorn and Frank P. Wesselingh

Part I Tectonic processes as driving mechanisms for palaeogeographical and palaeoenvironmental evolution in Amazonia.

2 Geological evolution of the Amazonian Craton 9
Salomon B. Kroonenberg and Emond W.F. de Roever

3 The Paleozoic Solimões and Amazonas basins and the Acre foreland basin of Brazil 29
Joaquim Ribeiro Wanderley-Filho, Jaime Fernandes Eiras, Paulo Roberto da Cruz Cunha and Paulus H. van der Ven

4 Tectonic history of the Andes and sub-Andean zones: implications for the development of the Amazon drainage basin 38
Andres Mora, Patrice Baby, Martin Roddaz, Mauricio Parra, Stéphane Brusset, Wilber Hermoza and Nicolas Espurt

5 Cenozoic sedimentary evolution of the Amazonian foreland basin system 61
Martin Roddaz, Wilber Hermoza, Andres Mora, Patrice Baby, Mauricio Parra, Frédéric Christophoul, Stéphane Brusset and Nicolas Espurt

6 The Nazca Ridge and uplift of the Fitzcarrald Arch: implications for regional geology in northern South America 89
Nicolas Espurt, Patrice Baby, Stéphane Brusset, Martin Roddaz, Wilber Hermoza and Jocelyn Barbarand

Part II Cenozoic depositional systems in Amazonia.

7 The Amazonian Craton and its infl uence on past fl uvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia) 103
Carina Hoorn, Martin Roddaz, Rodolfo Dino, Emilio Soares, Cornelius Uba, Diana Ochoa-Lozano and Russell Mapes

8 The development of the Amazonian mega-wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia) 123
Carina Hoorn, Frank P. Wesselingh, Jussi Hovikoski and Javier Guerrero

9 Marine infl uence in Amazonia: evidence from the geological record 143
Jussi Hovikoski, Frank P. Wesselingh, Matti Räsänen, Murray Gingras and Hubert B. Vonhof

10 Megafan environments in northern South America and their impact on Amazon Neogene aquatic ecosystems 162
M. Justin Wilkinson, Larry G. Marshall, John G. Lundberg and Mikhail H. Kreslavsky

11 Long-term landscape development processes in Amazonia 185
Georg Irion and Risto Kalliola

Part III Amazonian climate, past and present.

12 Climate variation in Amazonia during the Neogene and the Quaternary 201
Hubert B. Vonhof and Ron J.G. Kaandorp

13 Modelling the response of Amazonian climate to the uplift of the Andean mountain range 211
Pierre Sepulchre, Lisa C. Sloan and Frédéric Fluteau

14 Modern Andean rainfall variation during ENSO cycles and its impact on the Amazon drainage basin 223
Bodo Bookhagen and Manfred R. Strecker

Part IV Cenozoic development of terrestrial and aquatic biota: insights from the fossil record.

15 A review of Tertiary mammal faunas and birds from western Amazonia 245
Francisco Ricardo Negri, Jean Bocquentin-Villanueva, Jorge Ferigolo and Pierre-Olivier Antoine

16 Neogene crocodile and turtle fauna in northern South America 259
Douglas Riff, Pedro Seyferth R. Romano, Gustavo Ribeiro Oliveira and Orangel A. Aguilera

17 The Amazonian Neogene fi sh fauna 281
John G. Lundberg, Mark H. Sabaj Pérez, Wasila M. Dahdul and Orangel A. Aguilera

18 Amazonian aquatic invertebrate faunas (Mollusca, Ostracoda) and their development over the past 30 million years 302
Frank P. Wesselingh and Maria-Inês F. Ramos

19 The origin of the modern Amazon rainforest: implications of the palynological and palaeobotanical record 317
Carlos Jaramillo, Carina Hoorn, Silane A.F. Silva, Fatima Leite, Fabiany Herrera, Luis Quiroz, Rodolfo Dino and Luzia Antonioli

20 Biotic development of Quaternary Amazonia: a palynological perspective 335
Hermann Behling, Mark Bush and Henry Hooghiemstra

Part V Modern perspectives on the origin of Amazonian biota.

21 Contribution of current and historical processes to patterns of tree diversity and composition of the Amazon 349
Hans ter Steege, ATDN (Amazon Tree Diversity Network: collective author) and RAINFOR (The Amazon Forest Inventory Network: collective author)

22 Composition and diversity of northwestern Amazonian rainforests in a geoecological context 360
Joost F. Duivenvoorden and Alvaro J. Duque

23 Diversifi cation of the Amazonian fl ora and its relation to key geological and environmental events: a molecular perspective 373
R. Toby Pennington and Christopher W. Dick

24 Molecular studies and phylogeography of Amazonian tetrapods and their relation to geological and climatic models 386
Alexandre Antonelli, Adrián Quijada-Mascareñas, Andrew J. Crawford, John M. Bates, Paúl M. Velazco and Wolfgang Wüster

25 Molecular signatures of Neogene biogeographical events in the Amazon fi sh fauna 405
Nathan R. Lovejoy, Stuart C. Willis and James S. Albert

Part VI Synthesis.

26 On the origin of Amazonian landscapes and biodiversity: a synthesis 421
Frank P. Wesselingh, Carina Hoorn, Salomon B. Kroonenberg, Alexandre Antonelli, John G. Lundberg, Hubert B. Vonhof and Henry Hooghiemstra

Index 433

Color plate section is found facing p. 210

Companion website for this book: www.wiley.com/go/hoorn/amazonia

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Carina Hoorn is a paleoecologist who studied geology and holds a PhD from the University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and an MSc in Science Communication (Imperial College, London). Currently she is liaised to the University of Amsterdam and her main research interests are Amazonia, the Himalayas, Tibet, and the coastal lagoons of Oman.

Frank Wesselingh is a molluscan palaeontologist who studied geology at the Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and holds a PhD from the University of Turku (Finland). Frank works at Naturalis, the Natural History Museum in Leiden (The Netherlands), and his research interests are fossil molluscan faunas of long-lived lakes, the North Sea Basin and the Indo-West Pacific.

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"The volume edited by Hoorn & Wesselingh is a must read for everyone studying geology and palaeontology of Amazonia . . . Therefore, the reviewer feels it necessary to recommended this volume strongly for all specialists in Cenozoic palaeoenvironments." (Zentralblatt fur Geologie und Palaontologie, 1 January 2011)

"In this comprehensive book, a wealth of detailed information integrates what we know of geological and climatic processes and the evolution of the tremendous biodiversity of the Amazonian region . . . This book will be a vital reference for Amazonian researchers and aficionados for many years to come. Current Amazonian researchers and any student contemplating graduate study in Amazonian geology, paleontology, phylogeography, or evolution should read this volume from cover to cover." (The Quarterly Review of Biology, 1 June 2011)

"Recommenced. Academic audiences, upper-division undergraduates." (Choice, October 2010)

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