Print this page Share

Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity: Volume 2 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, Essays and Exegesis §§185-242, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-4051-8408-3
400 pages
December 2009, Wiley-Blackwell
Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity: Volume 2 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, Essays and Exegesis §§185-242, 2nd Edition (1405184086) cover image


The Second Edition of Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity (the second volume of the landmark analytical commentary on Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations) now includes extensively revised and supplemented coverage of the Wittgenstein's complex and controversial remarks on following rules.
  • Includes thoroughly rewritten essays and the addition of one new essay on communitarian and individualist conceptions of rule-following
  • Includes a greatly expanded essay on Wittgenstein’s conception of logical, mathematical and metaphysical necessity
  • Features updates to the textual exegesis as the result of taking advantage of the search engine for the Bergen edition of the Nachlass
  • Reflects the results of scholarly debates on rule-following that have raged over the past 20 years
See More

Table of Contents

About the Authors ix

Acknowledgements x

Introduction to Volume 2 xii

Abbreviations xvi


I Two fruits upon one tree 3

1. The continuation of the Early Draft into philosophy of mathematics 3

2. Hidden isomorphism 7

3. A common methodology 12

4. The flatness of philosophical grammar 19

FOLLOWING A RULE §§185–242 23

Introduction to the exegesis 25

II Rules and grammar 41

1. The Tractatus and rules of logical syntax 41

2. From logical syntax to philosophical grammar 43

3. Rules and rule-formulations 46

4. Philosophy and grammar 55

5. The scope of grammar 59

6. Some morals 65

Exegesis §§185–8 68

III Accord with a rule 81

1. Initial compass bearings 81

2. Accord and the harmony between language and reality 83

3. Rules of inference and logical machinery 88

4. Formulations and explanations of rules by examples 90

5. Interpretations, fitting and grammar 93

6. Further misunderstandings 95

Exegesis §§189–202 98

IV Following rules, mastery of techniques, and practices 135

1. Following a rule 135

2. Practices and techniques 140

3. Doing the right thing and doing the same thing 145

4. Privacy and the community view 149

5. On not digging below bedrock 156

V Private linguists and ‘private linguists’ – Robinson Crusoe sails again 157

1. Is a language necessarily shared with a community of speakers? 157

2. Innate knowledge of a language 158

3. Robinson Crusoe sails again 160

4. Solitary cavemen and monologuists 163

5. Private languages and ‘private languages’ 165

6. Overview 166

Exegesis §§203–37 169

VI Agreement in definitions, judgements and forms of life 211

1. The scaffolding of facts 211

2. The role of our nature 215

3. Forms of life 218

4. Agreement: consensus of human beings and their actions 223

Exegesis §§238–42 231

VII Grammar and necessity 241

1. Setting the stage 241

2. Leitmotifs 245

3. External guidelines 258

4. Necessary propositions and norms of representation 262

5. Concerning the truth and falsehood of necessary propositions 270

6. What necessary truths are about 280

7. Illusions of correspondence: ideal objects, kinds of reality and ultra-physics 283

8. The psychology and epistemology of the a priori 289

(i) Knowledge 289

(ii) Belief 291

(iii) Certainty 294

(iv) Surprise 298

(v) Discoveries and conjectures 300

(vi) Compulsion 305

9. Propositions of logic and laws of thought 308

10. Alternative forms of representation 320

11. The arbitrariness of grammar 332

12. A kinship to the non-arbitrary 338

13. Proof in mathematics 345

14. Conventionalism 356

Index 371

See More

Author Information

G. P. Baker was a Fellow of St John's College, Oxford from 1967 until his death in 2002. He is the co-author with P.M.S. Hacker of the first two volumes of the four-volume Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations (Blackwell, 1980–96), author of Wittgenstein, Frege and the Vienna Circle (Blackwell, 1988) and, with Katherine Morris, of Descartes' Dualism (1996). He also wrote numerous articles on Wittgenstein, Frege, Russell, Waismann and Descartes.

P. M. S. Hacker is the leading authority on the philosophy of Wittgenstein. He is author of the four-volume Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, the first two volumes co-authored with G.P. Baker (Blackwell, 1980–96) and of Wittgenstein's Place in Twentieth-century Analytic Philosophy (Blackwell, 1996). His recent works include The Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (Blackwell, 2003) and History of Cognitive Neuroscience (Wiley-Blackwell, 2008), both co-authored with M. R. Bennett. Most recently he has published Human Nature: The Categorial Framework (Blackwell, 2007), the first volume of a trilogy on human nature. Together with Joachim Schulte, he has produced the 4th edition and extensively revised translation of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

See More


The authors showed in the first volume that they had in full measure the combination of scholarship and philosophical excellence needed to expound and illuminate the intricacies of the text. That combination is apparent on every page of the present work.’
—Bede Rundle, Philosophical Investigations

‘This second volume has all the scholarly virtues of its predecessor. It is imbued with massive learning. The exegeses are accurate. The essays usefully distinguish the different threads in Wittgenstein’s discussion; they explicate the most significant of the relevant concepts, and they explain the philosophical importance of the issues involved.’
—Malcolm Budd, Philosophical Books

See More

Buy Both and Save 25%!


Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity: Volume 2 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, Essays and Exegesis §§185-242, 2nd Edition (US $181.95)

-and- Wittgenstein: Understanding And Meaning: Volume 1 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, Part II: Exegesis §§1-184, 2nd Edition (US $43.95)

Total List Price: US $225.90
Discounted Price: US $169.42 (Save: US $56.48)

Buy Both
Cannot be combined with any other offers. Learn more.

Related Titles

Back to Top