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Forensic Psychology

Graham J. Towl (Editor), David A. Crighton (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-8618-6
474 pages
March 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Forensic Psychology (1405186186) cover image
A comprehensive overview of forensic psychology as it applies to the civil and criminal justice systems in the UK, which draws on the international evidence base, with contributions from leading international experts
  • Designed to cover the British Psychological Society training syllabus in forensic psychology, meeting the needs of postgraduate students
  • Chapters are each written by leading international experts, and provide the latest research and evidence base practice for students
  • Ideal for qualified practitioners as a resource for continuing professional development
  • The text is written in a style designed to support and direct students, and includes specific learning aids and guides to further study
  • Linked to an online site providing additional learning materials, offering further aid to students
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List of Contributors

Note

Part I: Context:

1. Introduction (Graham J. Towl, Durham University)

Justice

Expert Controversies

Thinking about Ethics

Developmental Perspectives

Offender Profiling: Smoke and Mirrors?

Witnesses

Psychological Assessment

Critical Psychology

Drugs

Justice Restored

References

2. The Justice System in England and Wales (David Faulkner, University of Oxford)

What Justice Means

The Criminal Justice System

What Is a Crime?

Measurement of Crime

The Criminal Justice Process

The Sentencing Framework

The Criminal Courts

Police and Policing

The Crown Prosecution Service

Prisons and the Prison Service

Probation

Youth Justice

Home Office

Ministry of Justice

Law Officers’ Department

Other National Bodies

Some Special Subjects

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Notes

3. Community Services for Children and Young People (Kerry Baker, University of Oxford)

Introduction

Youth Justice in the UK

Characteristics and Needs of Young People Who Offend

Framework for Practice

Interventions and Services

Critical debates

Resources and Multi-Agency Working

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Notes

4. Expert Testimony (Brian R. Clifford, University of Aberdeen)

Introduction

Who and What Is an Expert?

The Controversial Nature of Expert Evidence

Junk Science

The Problem of the Ultimate Issue

Battle of the Experts

Alternatives and Antidotes to Adversarial Expert Testimony

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

5. Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychological Policy and Practice (Graham Towl, Durham University)

Philosophical Roots

Ethical Guidance for Professionals

Power Relationships

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Part II: Evidence-based Practice:

6. The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research and Forensic Applications (Robert A. Schug, University of Southern California, Yu Gao,University of Southern California, Andrea L. Glenn, University of Southern California, Melissa Peskin, University of Southern California, Yaling Yang, UCLA and Adrian Raine, University of Pennsylvania)

The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research

Genetics

Neuroimaging

Neurology

Neuropsychology

Psychophysiology

Endocrinology

Moral Development

Nutrition

Forensic Applications of Developmental Neurobiological Research

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

7. The Developmental Evidence Base: Prevention (David P. Farrington, University of Cambridge)

Introduction

Family-based Prevention

School-based Prevention

Peer Programmes

Skills Training

Communities That Care

Recent UK Developments

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

8. The Developmental Evidence Base: Psychosocial Research (David P. Farrington, University of Cambridge)

Introduction

Individual Factors

Family Factors

Social Factors

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

9. The Developmental Evidence Base: Desistance (Lila Kazemian, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York and David P. Farrington, University of Cambridge)

Current State of Knowledge on Desistance

Unresolved Issues in Desistance Research

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Note

10. Offender Profiling (David A. Crighton, Ministry of Justice and Durham University)

Introduction

Historical Development

Current Approaches to Offender Profiling

Current Developments

Profiling Databases

The Evidence Base for Profiling

Practice Issues

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Notes

11. Eyewitness Testimony (Lorraine Hope, University of Portsmouth)

Eyewitness Identification Performance: Experimental Research and the Real World

The Witnessed Event

Between the Witnessed Event and Identification Task

Intermediate Recognition Tasks

The Identification Task

Identifications from CCTV

Procedural Guidelines Relating to Suspect Identification in the UK

The Eyewitness in Court

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

12. Children as Witnesses (Graham Davies, University of Leicester and Kathy Pezdek, Claremont Graduate University)

Definition of ‘Memory Suggestibility’ and ‘False Memory’

Factors that Affect the Suggestibility of Children’s Memory

Children’s True and False Autobiographical Memory

Guidelines for Effective Child Witness Interviewing

Child Witnesses in Court

Conclusions

References

13. Witness Interviewing (David La Rooy, University of Abertay and Coral Dando, University of Leicester)

Introduction

Encoding, Storage and Retrieval

Forgetting

Reminiscence

Encoding Specificity

Suggestibility and False Memory

Witness Interviewing in the UK

Further Reading

References

14. Victims of Crime: Towards a Psychological Perspective (Werner Greve, University of Hildesheim and Cathleen Kappes, University of Hildesheim)

Brightening the Dark Figure: Descriptive Victimology

Explaining Victimisation: Between Probabilities and Blame

Recognising the Suffering: Consequences of Victimisation

Coping with Criminal Victimisation: Towards a Theoretical Integration

Perspectives for Intervention and Research

References

Notes

15. Jury Decision Making (Andreas Kapardis, University of Cyprus)

Introduction: The Jury Idea

The Notion of an Impartial and Fair Jury: A Critical Appraisal

Methods for Studying Juries/Jurors

Selecting Jurors

The Jury Foreperson

Jury Deliberation

Models of Jury Decision Making

Reforming the Jury to Remedy Some of Its Problems

Alternatives to Trial by Jury

Conclusions

References

Notes

16. Assessment (David A. Crighton, Ministry of Justice and Durham University)

Conceptual Issues in Assessment

Psychological Assessment

Data Gathering

Data Analysis

Clinical Judgements and Biases

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Notes

17. Risk Assessment (David A. Crighton, Ministry of Justice and Durham University)

Definitional Issues

Key Principles in Risk Assessment

Limitations of Risk Assessment

Communicating Risk Assessments Effectively

Decision Making about Risks

Managing Risk

Further Reading

References

Notes

18. Aspects of Diagnosed Mental Illness and Offending (David Pilgrim, University of Central Lancashire)

The Social Context of Rule Transgressions: Normal and Abnormal Offenders

Overlaps and Tensions between Psychiatric and Psychological Knowledge

Psychological and Psychiatric Approaches to Mental Illness in Forensic Settings

The Problematic Relationship between Diagnosed Mental Illness and Risk

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

19. Mentally Disordered Offenders: Intellectual Disability (William R. Lindsay, Carstairs State Hospital and University of Abertay and John L. Taylor, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Trust and University of Northumbria)

The Context of Practice in Forensic Learning Disabilities

Mental Health Legislation

Learning Disability and Crime

Applications of Psychology to Processes within the Justice System

Working with Offenders with ID

Interventions with Offenders with ID

Summary and Conclusions

References

20. Mental Disordered Offenders: Personality Disorder (Richard Howard, University of Nottingham and Conor Duggan, University of Nottingham)

Issues Surrounding the Concept of Personality Disorder

Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorder

Assessment of Psychopathy

Measures of Interpersonal Style

Practical Considerations

Summary: Assessment of Personality Disorder

Procedural Recommendations in Assessing Personality Disorder

Treatment of Personality Disorder: Some Caveats

Treatment Issues

Personality Disorder and Offending

Conclusions and Implications for the Future

Further Reading

References

Notes

21. The Trauma of Being Violent (Ceri Evans, Canterbury Regional Forensic Psychiatric Service, New Zealand)

Introduction

Empirical Evidence

Clinical and Legal Implications

Conclusions

References

Note

22. Substance Use Disorders (Michael Gossop, Bethlehem Hospital and Institute of Psychiatry London)

Consumption Behaviours, Problems, and Dependence

Drugs and Crime

Assessment of Substance Use Disorders

Management of Detoxification

Treatment

Further Complications

Further Reading

References

Notes

23. Children Who Physically or Sexually Harm Others (Kevin Browne, University of Nottingham and Shihning Chou, University of Nottingham)

Extent of Violent Offences by Children

Extent of Sexual Offences by Children

Characteristics of Antisocial and Violent Children

The Development of Antisocial Behaviour in Children

Need for Early Intervention

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

24. Sexually Harmful Adults (Belinda Brooks-Gordon, Birkbeck University of London)

Who and What Is a Sexually Harmful Adult?

Prevalence and Incidence of Sexually Harmful Behaviours

Theories of Sexually Harmful Behaviour

Assessing the Risk of Sexually Harmful Adults

Interventions for Sexually Harmful Adults

Measuring Interventions

Past Meta-analyses of Interventions with Sexually Harmful Adults

Improving the Quality of Treatment Outcome

Cluster Randomisation

When the ‘Sex Offender’ Is Not Sexually Harmful

The Politicisation of Sexual Harm

Sexual Harm and the Culture of Fear

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Notes

25. Suicide and Self-Injury in Offenders (Jenny Shaw, University of Manchester and Naomi Humber, University of Manchester)

Suicide in the General Population

Background

Suicide in the Prison Population

Limitations of Prison Suicide Research

Suicide in Community Offenders

Suicide in Police Custody

Pre- and Post-Release Planning from Criminal Justice Agencies

Self-injury in Offenders

Risk Factors for Self-Injury in Offenders

Specific Subgroups of Offenders

Assessing Risk

Prevention

Diversion from the Criminal Justice System

Interventions and Management of Self-Injury

Conclusions

Further Reading

References

Note

26. Restorative Justice as a Psychological Treatment: Healing Victims, Reintegrating Offenders (Lawrence W. Sherman, University of Cambridge and Heather Strang, University of Cambridge)

Introduction

Varieties of Restorative Justice

Theories of Change for Victims and Offenders

Delivering RJ Conferencing

Research on Restorative Justice: The Gold Standard

Effects of RJ Conferencing on Offenders

Effects of RJ Conferencing on Victims

Evidence on Other RJ Options

RJ and Forensic Psychology

Further Reading

References

Notes

27. Concluding Themes: Psychological Perspectives and Futures (Graham J. Towl (Durham University)

Introduction

Contextual Themes

Psychological Perspectives

Futures

Index

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Professor Graham J. Towl is Principal of St Cuthbert⠪s Society and Professor in the Department of Psychology at Durham University. He was formerly the Chief Psychologist in the Ministry of Justice, and is a recipient of the British Psychological Society award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Psychology. He was the first chair of the British Psychological Society⠪s renamed Division of Forensic Psychology. He is the editor of Psychological Research in Prisons (2006) and co-author of Psychology in Prisons, 2nd edition (2008) and co-editor of the Dictionary of Forensic Psychology (2008).

Professor David A. Crighton is acting Chief Psychologist in the Ministry of Justice and visiting Professor of Forensic Psychology at Roehampton University London. Professor Crighton⠪s main research interests are in the areas of risk assessment, forensic mental health and neuropsychology. He is co-author of Psychology in Prisons, 2nd edition (2008) and co-editor the Dictionary of Forensic Psychology (2008).

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"Graham Towl and David Crighton have brought together an 'A-List' of international scholars to scrutinize the manifold applications of psychology to justice-involved persons. The contributors have harmonized scientific rigor, legal precision, and clinical insight in addressing topics that range from ethics to eyewitnesses and from prevention to profiling. Encyclopedic in coverage and lucidly written, Forensic Psychology will have a serious influence on practice, policy, and research."
John Monahan, Shannon Distinguished Professor of Law and Psychology, University of Virginia, USA
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