Wiley.com
Print this page Share

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75

ISBN: 978-1-4051-8899-9
312 pages
February 2018, Wiley-Blackwell
A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (1405188995) cover image

Description

Provides a new narrative history of the ancient world, from the beginnings of civilization in the ancient Near East and Egypt to the fall of Constantinople

Written by an expert in the field, this book presents a narrative history of Babylon from the time of its First Dynasty (1880-1595) until the last centuries of the city’s existence during the Hellenistic and Parthian periods (ca. 331-75 AD). Unlike other texts on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history, it offers a unique focus on Babylon and Babylonia, while still providing readers with an awareness of the interaction with other states and peoples. Organized chronologically, it places the various socio-economic and cultural developments and institutions in their historical context. The book also gives religious and intellectual developments more respectable coverage than books that have come before it.

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC – AD 75 teaches readers about the most important phase in the development of Mesopotamian culture. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on the Sumero-Addadian Background, the rise of Babylon, the decline of the first dynasty, Kassite ascendancy, the second dynasty of Isin, Arameans and Chaldeans, the Assyrian century, the imperial heyday, and Babylon under foreign rule.

  • Focuses on Babylon and Babylonia
  • Written by a highly regarded Assyriologist
  • Part of the very successful Histories of the Ancient World series
  • An excellent resource for students, instructors, and scholars

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 is a profound text that will be ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history and scholars of the subject.

See More

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xii

List of Tables xiv

List of Maps xvi

Preface xvii

List of Abbreviations xix

Author’s Note xx

1 Introductory Concerns 1

1.1 Assyriology and the Writing of History 3

1.1.1 Cuneiform Texts as Historical Sources 4

1.2 Historical Science and the Handling of Sources 17

1.3 Chronology 20

2 The Sumero -Akkadian Background 24

2.1 Babylonia as Geographic Unit 24

2.2 The Natural Environment 25

2.3 The Neolithic Revolution 28

2.4 The Ubaid Period (6500–4000) 29

2.5 The Uruk Period (4000–3100) 30

2.6 The Jemdet Nasr Period (3100–2900) 31

2.7 The Early Dynastic Period (2900–2350) 34

2.7.1 The State of Lagash 38

2.7.2 Babylon in the Early Dynastic Period 40

2.8 The Sargonic (Old Akkadian) and Gutian Periods  (ca. 2334–2113) 41

2.8.1 Akkadian and Sumerian Linguistic Areas 42

2.8.2 The Early Sargonic Period (ca. 2334–2255) 44

2.8.3 The Classical Sargonic Period (ca. 2254–2193) 46

2.8.4 Babylon in the Sargonic Period 50

2.8.5  The Late Sargonic (ca. 2193–2154) and Gutian Periods (ca. 2153–2113) 51

2.9 The Third Dynasty of Ur (2112–2004) 52

2.9.1 King of Sumer and Akkad 53

2.9.2 Shulgi’s Babylonia 54

2.9.3 Failure of the Ur III State 56

2.9.4 Babylon during the Ur III Period 57

3 The Rise of Babylon 60

3.1 The First Dynasty of Isin (2017–1794) 62

3.2 The Amorites 64

3.2.1 Amorite Genealogies and Histories 66

3.3 Date Lists and King Lists of Babylon I 68

3.4 Elusive Beginnings 69

3.5 Sumu -la -el (1880–1845) 70

3.5.1 The Letter of Anam and the Babylon -Uruk Alliance 71

3.6 Half a Century of Stability (1844–1793) 72

3.6.1 The Battle for Kazallu 74

3.6.2 The Apex of Larsa 75

3.7 Hammu -rabi (1792–1750) 76

3.7.1 In the Shadow of Samsi -Addu (1792–1775) 77

3.7.2 Eshnunna’s Bid for Hegemony (1772–1770) 79

3.7.3 A Fragile Equilibrium (1769–1766) 80

3.7.4 The Elamite Intervention  and its Aftermath (1766–1764) 82

3.7.5 Showdown with Larsa (1764–1763) 83

3.7.6 The Capture and Sack of Mari (1761–1759) 85

3.7.7 Towards an Empire (1759–1750) 85

3.7.8 The Code of Hammu -rabi 86

3.7.9 Hammu -rabi as Administrator 92

4 Decline of the First Dynasty 97

4.1 The Reign of Samsu -iluna (1749–1712) 97

4.1.1 The Rebellion of Rim -Sin II (1742–1740) 99

4.1.2 The Rebellion of Rim -Anum (1742–1740) 100

4.1.3 The Invasion of the Kassites (1742) 101

4.1.4 Samsu -iluna Strikes Back 101

4.1.5 Sargonic Reveries 102

4.1.6 Loss of Southern Babylonia 103

4.1.7 Northern Exertions 104

4.1.8 Loss of Central Babylonia and Rise of the Sealand 108

4.1.9 From Sumerian to Akkadian Literature 108

4.1.10 Samsu -iluna as Administrator and Legislator 109

4.2 The Last Century of Babylon I (1711–1595) 111

4.2.1 Abi -eshuh (1711–1684) 111

4.2.2 Ammi -ditana (1683–1647) 113

4.2.3 Ammi -saduqa (1646–1626) 114

4.2.4 Samsu -ditana (1625–1595) 117

4.2.5 The City of Babylon during the First Dynasty 119

5 Kassite Ascendancy 122

5.1 The Kassites as Linguistic and Cultural Group 122

5.2 The Early Kassite Period (1595–ca. 1400) 125

5.2.1 The Texts from Tell Muhammad 125

5.2.2 The Early Kassite Rulers (Sixteenth Century) 127

5.2.3 The First Dynasty of the Sealand (ca. 1725–1475) 129

5.2.4 The Reunification of Babylonia 131

5.3 Kassite Babylonia: The Documentary Evidence 132

5.3.1 A New Source: The Kudurrus 133

5.4 Karduniash: A New Babylonia 135

5.4.1 Kurigalzu I 137

5.4.2 Dur -Kurigalzu: A Kassite Royal Residence 137

5.5 The Age of Amarna 140

5.6 The Rise of Assyria 142

5.7 The Middle Kassite Period (1332–1225) 143

5.7.1 Ruralization of Babylonia 145

5.7.2 Nippur as Southern Capital 146

5.8 The Intervention of Tukulti -Ninurta I and its Aftermath 147

5.9 End of the Kassite Regime (1186–1155) 150

5.10 Akkadian Literature under the Kassites 151

6 Second Dynasty of Isin 154

6.1 Marduk and Nabu 157

6.2 Renewed Conflict with Assyria 158

6.3 Nebuchadnezzar I (1121–1100) 159

6.3.1 The Elamite Campaign and the Return of Marduk 159

6.3.2 Enuma Elish and the Supremacy of Marduk 161

6.3.3 Nebuchadnezzar I and Royal Legitimacy 163

6.4 Sealand Memories under Enlil -nadin -apli (1099–1096) 164

6.5 Marduk -nadin -ahhe (1095–1078) 164

6.5.1 Aramean Invasions 167

6.6 Marduk -shapik -zeri (1077–1065) 167

6.7 Adad -apla -iddina (1064–1043) 168

6.8 The End of Isin II (1042–1022) 169

7 Arameans and Chaldeans 171

7.1 The Arameans 172

7.2 The Chaldeans 173

7.3 Three Short Dynasties 176

7.4 The Dynasty of E 178

7.4.1 Nabu -mukin -apli (974–939) 179

7.4.2 Assyrian Resurgence 179

7.4.3 Nabu -apla -iddina 180

7.4.4 Marduk -zakir -shumi I 182

7.4.5 Descent into Anarchy (819–770?) 183

7.4.6 Eriba -Marduk 186

7.4.7 Nabu -shuma -ishkun (760?–748) 186

7.4.8 Nabonassar (747–734) 188

8 The Assyrian Century 193

8.1 The Rebellion of Mukin -zeri 196

8.2 The palû of Baltil (728–722) 197

8.3 Marduk -apla -iddina II and Chaldean Resistance (721–709) 198

8.4 The palû of Habigal (709–694) 201

8.5 The Two Shuzubus (694–689) 204

8.6 Sennacherib’s Desecration of Babylon (689–681) 206

8.7 Esarhaddon Restores Babylon (681–669) 208

8.7.1 A New Generation of Opponents 209

8.8 Regnant Siblings (669–652) 211

8.9 Civil War (652–648) 214

8.10 Ashurbanipal and Kandalanu (647–630/27) 216

9 Imperial Heyday 219

9.1 Sources 220

9.1.1 Neo -Babylonian Archives 221

9.1.2 Spread of Aramaic 222

9.2 Power Struggle for Babylonia (630–620) 223

9.3 A Chaldeo -Aramean Empire 224

9.4 The Fall of Assyria (616–609) 225

9.5 Nabopolassar and the Restoration of Babylonia 227

9.6 Nebuchadnezzar in the Levant 227

9.7 The Climax of Babylon 229

9.7.1 Economic Expansion 232

9.7.2 Administration of Babylonia 233

9.7.3 Methods of Imperial Control 235

9.8 A Problematic Succession (562–556) 237

9.9 Babylon’s Twilight: The Reign of Nabonidus (555–539) 238

9.9.1 The Conquest of North Arabia 239

9.9.2 Geopolitical Upheaval 240

9.9.3 The Last Days of Imperial Babylon 243

10 Babylon under Foreign Rule 246

10.1 Cyrus Enters Babylon 247

10.2 A Smooth Transition 248

10.3 The Babylonian Pretenders of 522–521 250

10.4 The Reforms of Darius I 251

10.5 The Babylonian Pretenders of 484 253

10.6 Babylonia in the Late Achaemenid Period 254

10.7 Hellenistic Babylonia 256

10.8 Alexander and his Successors in Babylon (331–311) 257

10.9 Babylon and Seleucia 259

10.10 An Age of Renewal 261

10.11 Hellenization of Babylonia 263

10.12 Parthian Takeover 265

10.13 Sic Transit 266

Appendix: Checklist of Chronicles 269

Bibliography 271

Index 273

See More
Back to Top