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Fish Processing: Sustainability and New Opportunities

George M. Hall (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4051-9047-3
312 pages
November 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Fish Processing: Sustainability and New Opportunities (1405190477) cover image
This book seeks to address the challenges facing the international seafood industry via a two pronged approach: by offering the latest information on established technologies and introducing new ideas and technologies. An introductory chapter sets the tone for the book by presenting the background against which fish processing will exist in the near future. Chapter two looks at the environmental and sustainability issues relating to conventional fish processing, including processing efficiency and better use of the outputs currently considered wastes. The impact of mechanisation and computerisation on environmental sustainability is also addressed. Subsequent chapters examine the latest developments in established fish processing technologies such as canning, curing, freezing and chilling, with an emphasis on the environmental aspects of packaging and the process itself. In addition, quality and processing parameters for specific species, including new species, are described.

The second part of the book gives authors the opportunity to introduce the potential technologies and applications of the future to a wider audience. These include fermented products and their acceptance by a wider audience; the utilisation of fish processing by-products as aquaculture feeds; and the use of by-products for bioactive compounds in biomedical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and other applications.

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Preface

Contributors

1 Introduction: Challenges to the Fish-Processing

Industry in a Resource-Starved World

George M. Hall

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Defining sustainability

1.1.2 Sustainable development concepts for FPI

1.2 Sustainability tools

1.2.1 Carbon footprinting

1.2.2 Carbon labelling

1.2.3 Life cycle assessment

1.2.4 The supply chain

1.3 Climate change

1.4 The capture fishery

1.4.1 Current production levels

1.4.2 Future trends and fisheries management

1.5 Contribution of aquaculture

1.5.1 Current production levels

1.5.2 Future trends

1.5.3 Barriers to increased production

1.6 Industrial fish production

1.6.1 Current levels

1.6.2 Future trends

1.6.3 Redefining ‘industrial species’

1.7 Implications for the processing industry

1.7.1 Efficiency in processing

1.7.2 Food security and trade

1.7.3 Introducing new food species

1.7.4 Post-harvest losses

1.7.5 Environmental impact of fish processing

1.8 Conclusion: sustainability in the fish-processing industry

References

2 Canning Fish and Fish Products

George M. Hall

2.1 Principles of canning

2.1.1 Thermal destruction of fish-borne bacteria

2.1.2 Quality criteria for thermally processed fish

2.2 Packaging materials

2.2.1 Glass jars

2.2.2 Rigid metal containers

2.2.3 Rigid plastic containers

2.2.4 Flexible containers (pouches)

2.2.5 Environmental issues related to packaging materials

2.3 Processing operations

2.3.1 Pre-processing operations

2.3.2 Heat-processing operations

2.3.3 Post-processing operations

2.3.4 Environmental issues and process optimization

2.4 Canning of specific species

2.4.1 Small pelagics

2.4.2 Tuna and mackerel

2.4.3 Crustacea

2.5 Conclusions

References

3 Preservation by Curing (Drying, Salting and Smoking)

George M. Hall

3.1 Basic relationships

3.1.1 Water activity and spoilage

3.1.2 Product quality

3.2 Drying

3.2.1 Air- or contact drying

3.2.2 Improving the efficiency of drying

3.3 Salting

3.3.1 Wet and dry salting

3.3.2 Quality aspects

3.4 Smoking

3.4.1 The preservative effect

3.4.2 Quality aspects

3.4.3 Smoking systems and equipment

3.4.4 Traditional systems

3.4.5 Fuel wood for traditional fish smoking

3.5 Post-harvest losses in fish smoking

3.5.1 Sustainable livelihoods approach

3.5.2 Assessing post-harvest fisheries losses

3.6 Sustainability issues

References

4 Freezing and Chilling of Fish and Fish Products

George M. Hall

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Freezing time calculations

4.1.2 Effect of freezing on micro-organisms and parasites

4.1.3 Physico-chemical effects during freezing

4.1.4 Temperature modelling in fish transportation

4.2 Freezing systems

4.2.1 The refrigeration cycle

4.2.2 Classification of freezers

4.2.3 Air-blast freezers

4.2.4 Immersion freezers

4.2.5 Plate freezers

4.2.6 Cryogenic freezers

4.3 Environmental impact of freezing operations

4.3.1 Energy efficiency of freezing systems

4.3.2 Cold storage systems

4.3.3 Refrigerants and cryogens

4.3.4 New refrigeration techniques

4.3.5 Environmental impact of freezer/cold storage buildings

4.4 Life cycle assessment and the supply chain

References

5 Surimi and Fish Mince Products

George M. Hall

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 Fish muscle proteins

5.1.2 Important protein properties in surimi processing

5.1.3 Appropriate species for surimi production

5.1.4 Surimi quality and sustainability

5.2 The surimi process

5.2.1 Basic process elements

5.2.2 Energy consumption

5.2.3 Water consumption

5.2.4 By-product development

5.3 Fish mince processing

References

6 Sustainability Impacts of Fish-Processing Operations

George M. Hall

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Sustainability issues

6.2.1 Sustainability and legislation

6.2.2 Energy

6.2.3 Water

6.2.4 Effluents

6.2.5 By-product development

6.3 Individual processes

6.4 Life cycle assessment

6.4.1 Background

6.4.2 Application to fish-processing operations

6.4.3 Development of LCA for fishing activity

6.5 Supply chain analysis

6.6 Cleaner production

6.7 Processing in a changing world

References

7 Sustainability of Fermented Fish Products

S. Kose and George M. Hall

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Principles of the fermentation process

7.2.1 Metabolic activity of LAB

7.2.2 The genera of LAB

7.2.3 Other issues relating to fermentation process

7.2.4 Inhibitory effects of LAB

7.3 Definition and classification of fermented fish products

7.3.1 Definition

7.3.2 Classification

7.4 Types of fermented fish products

7.4.1 European products

7.4.2 South-East Asian products

7.4.3 Fermented fish products of Africa

7.5 Quality and standards of fermented fish products

7.5.1 Salting procedures

7.5.2 Micro-organisms

7.5.3 Fish enzymes

7.5.4 Temperature during fermentation

7.5.5 Nutritional issues

7.5.6 Flavour

7.5.7 Presence of lipids

7.5.8 Colour

7.5.9 Other characteristics

7.6 Safety issues related to fermented fish products

7.6.1 Pathogenic bacteria

7.6.2 Parasites

7.6.3 Histamine and other biogenic amines

7.7 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

8 On-board Fish Processing

S. Kose

8.1 Introduction

8.2 On-board processing

8.2.1 Types of plants processing at sea

8.2.2 Tenders

8.2.3 History of on-board processing

8.2.4 Species and products processed at sea

8.3 Advantages of on-board processing

8.4 Quality issues related to on-board processing

8.4.1 Introduction to quality issues for fisheries products

8.4.2 Receiving and handling raw materials

8.4.3 Quality issues during processing

8.4.4 Quality issues during storage and transport

8.5 Sustainable issues

Acknowledgements

References

9 Fishmeal Production and Sustainability

George M. Hall

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 Fishmeal production

9.1.2 Conversion efficiency of fishmeal and fish oil

9.1.3 Nutritional value of fishmeal and fish oil

9.2 The fishmeal process

9.2.1 Raw material unloading

9.2.2 The cooker

9.2.3 The press

9.2.4 The decanter

9.2.5 Separators and purifiers

9.2.6 Evaporators

9.2.7 The drier

9.2.8 Post-production operations

9.2.9 Conclusions

9.3 Sustainability issues

9.3.1 Energy

9.3.2 Water

9.3.3 Effluents

9.3.4 By-products

9.3.5 Cleaner production

9.3.6 Life cycle assessment of the fishmeal and fish oil process

9.4 Alternatives to fishmeal

9.4.1 Fish silage

9.4.2 Fish protein hydrolysates

9.4.3 Plant-based alternatives to fishmeal

9.5 Conclusions

References

10 Utilization of Fish Processing By-products for Bioactive Compounds

K. Shirai and J. C. Ramirez-Ramirez

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Raw material chemical composition

10.3 Protein hydrolysates and peptides

10.3.1 General aspects and production

10.3.2 FPH composition and use as food ingredient

10.3.3 FPH and peptide applications

10.3.4 Therapeutic and health-promoting properties

10.4 Collagen and gelatin

10.4.1 Extraction conditions of fish collagens and gelatins

10.4.2 Functional properties

10.4.3 Therapeutic properties

10.5 Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in fish

10.5.1 Composition

10.5.2 Extraction

10.5.3 Therapeutic properties

10.6 Concluding remarks

Acknowledgements

References

11 Life Cycle Assessment of Bulk Packaging Used to Transport

Fresh Fish Products: Case Study

K. S. Williams

11.1 Introduction

11.1.1 Background to UK waste and sustainability

11.2 UK fishing industry

11.2.1 Transportation of fish products

11.2.2 Packaging of fish

11.2.3 Types of packaging

11.3 Life cycle assessment

11.3.1 Methodology

11.4 Case study: Rainbow Seafood – EPS and PP fish boxes

11.4.1 Company profile

11.4.2 Context of the study

11.4.3 Methodology

11.5 System design

11.6 Data acquisition

11.7 Life cycle inventory

11.8 Life cycle impact assessment

11.9 Results and recommendations

11.10 Conclusions

Acknowledgement

References

Index

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Dr George M. Hall, Research Fellow, Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
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“The book lays the groundwork for assessing seafood sustainability beyond the harvesting sector to encompass whole industry segments in the future. The authors present a fine academic analysis of both the potential and limits of the LCA approach, given basic disagreements on the definition of sustainability; appropriate inclusion and measurement of environmental impacts; and the role of regulations, costs, and acceptance by industry, consumers, and the public.”  (Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 25 December 2013)

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