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American Military History: A Documentary Reader

ISBN: 978-1-4051-9052-7
392 pages
October 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
American Military History: A Documentary Reader (1405190523) cover image
American Military History: A Documentary Reader presents a comprehensive collection of primary documents relating to America's armed forces from the colonial period to the present.
  • Features documents which introduce key people, events, and turning points in American military history
  • Explores the importance of events not only in terms of military history, but also on a social and cultural level for the country at large
  • Includes an ancillary website featuring an online resource center, links to additional material, maps, and a glossary to aid instructors and students, available at http://www.ccis.edu/faculty/bdlookingbill/
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List of Figures xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction 1

Chapter 1: An Uncommon Defense 6

1.1 Powhatan Describes War among the Natives (1607) 7

1.2 John Mason Campaigns against the Pequot (1637) 9

1.3 Elizabeth Bacon Observes Skirmishes in Virginia (1676) 11

1.4 Benjamin Church Plans for Action in New England (1704) 13

1.5 James Oglethorpe Strikes Spanish Outposts (1739–1741) 16

1.6 Robert Rogers Provides Rules for the Rangers (1757) 18

1.7 Parliament Passes a Quartering Act (1765) 22

1.8 An Unknown Soldier Sings ‘‘Yankee Doodle’’ (1775) 24

Chapter 2: War for Independence 27

2.1 The Continental Congress Raises an Army (1775) 28

2.2 James Monroe Goes to War (1776) 30

2.3 Albigence Waldo Treats Soldiers at Valley Forge (1777) 32

2.4 Jeffrey Brace Fights for Liberty (1778) 35

2.5 John Paul Jones Captures a British Frigate (1779) 38

2.6 A French Officer Draws the Continental Line (1781) 40

2.7 Deborah Sampson Wears a Uniform (1782) 42

2.8 George Washington Bids Farewell to the Army (1783) 44

Chapter 3: Establishing the Military 49

3.1 Alexander Hamilton Considers National Forces (1787) 50

3.2 Henry Knox Arranges the Militia (1790) 52

3.3 Anthony Wayne Prevails at Fallen Timbers (1794) 55

3.4 John Adams Prepares the Navy for War (1797) 58

3.5 Congress Passes the Military Peace Establishment Act (1802) 60

3.6 William Eaton Arrives on the Shores of Tripoli (1805) 62

3.7 James Wilkinson Faces a Court Martial (1811) 65

Chapter 4: Mr. Madison’s War 69

4.1 James Madison Calls for War (1812) 70

4.2 Lydia Bacon Enters Fort Detroit (1812) 73

4.3 Benjamin Tanner Engraves the US Frigate Constitution (1812) 76

4.4 Black Hawk Takes the Warpath (1813) 77

4.5 Oliver Hazard Perry Defends Lake Erie (1813) 80

4.6 Samuel White Campaigns in Canada (1814) 83

4.7 Francis Scott Key Pens “Defence of Fort McHenry” (1814) 85

4.8 Andrew Jackson Triumphs at New Orleans (1815) 86

Chapter 5: The Martial Republic 90

5.1 John C. Calhoun Proposes an Expansible Army (1820) 91

5.2 The National Guard Parades in New York (1825) 94

5.3 John Downes Sails to Sumatra (1832) 96

5.4 Ethan Allen Hitchcock Patrols in Florida (1836) 99

5.5 Juan Seguż´n Remembers the Alamo (1837) 102

5.6 The Army and Navy Chronicle Encourages Reform (1839) 104

5.7 Henry W. Halleck Lectures on War (1846) 106

Chapter 6: The Forces of Manifest Destiny 110

6.1 James K. Polk Calls for War (1846) 111

6.2 James K. Holland Marches into Mexico (1846) 114

6.3 Whigs Denounce the Conduct of the War (1847) 116

6.4 Zachary Taylor Describes Buena Vista (1847) 119

6.5 Winfield Scott Lands at Veracruz (1847) 122

6.6 James Walker Paints The Battle of Chapultepec (1847) 124

6.7 Matthew C. Perry Steams to Japan (1852) 125

6.8 Elizabeth C. Smith Petitions for Bounty Land (1853) 128

Chapter 7: The Blue and the Gray 132

7.1 Abraham Lincoln Issues Proclamations (1861) 133

7.2 Julia Ward Howe Composes “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” (1862) 135

7.3 Jefferson Davis Appoints Robert E. Lee to Command (1862) 136

7.4 Gideon Welles Appraises the Ironclads (1862) 138

7.5 Francis Lieber Promulgates Rules for War (1863) 141

7.6 Sam R. Watkins Survives Chickamauga (1863) 144

7.7 James Henry Gooding Protests Unequal Pay (1863) 146

7.8 Robert E. Lee Requests Additional Troops (1864) 148

7.9 Phoebe Yates Pember Works at Chimborazo (1864) 151

7.10 Ulysses S. Grant Offers Terms at Appomattox (1865) 153

Chapter 8: Twilight of the Indian Wars 157

8.1 William T. Sherman Discusses Indian Policy (1868) 158

8.2 Philip H. Sheridan Assesses a Winter Campaign (1869) 160

8.3 Elizabeth B. Custer Camps with the Cavalry (1873) 163

8.4 Etahdleuh Sketches Kiowa Warriors (1877) 165

8.5 Emory Upton Evaluates Military Policy (1880) 167

8.6 The Soldier’s Handbook Gives Healthy Advice (1884) 169

8.7 Nelson A. Miles Remembers Wounded Knee (1890) 172

Chapter 9: A Rising Power 176

9.1 Alfred Thayer Mahan Advocates Sea Power (1890) 177

9.2 William McKinley Calls for War (1898) 179

9.3 Frank W. Pullen Charges in Cuba (1898) 181

9.4 Clara Barton Visits a Field Hospital (1898) 184

9.5 Frederick N. Funston Operates in the Philippines (1901) 186

9.6 The Committee on Naval Affairs Investigates Submarines (1902) 189

9.7 Elihu Root Regulates the General Staff (1903) 191

9.8 The Great White Fleet Tours the World (1907–1909) 195

Chapter 10: The War to End All Wars 198

10.1 Woodrow Wilson Calls for War (1917) 199

10.2 James Montgomery Flagg Creates a Recruiting Poster (1917) 201

10.3 Congress Passes the Selective Service Act (1917) 203

10.4 John J. Pershing Commands the AEF (1917) 206

10.5 Ida Clyde Clarke Supports the War (1918) 209

10.6 Josephus Daniels Manages the Navy Department (1918) 212

10.7 Ben Hur Chastaine Reaches the Front (1918) 214

10.8 The Stars and Stripes Notes the Armistice (1918) 217

Chapter 11: Out of the Trenches 221

11.1 The American Legion Rallies Veterans (1919) 222

11.2 George S. Patton Ponders the Next War (1922) 224

11.3 Billy Mitchell Advocates Air Power (1927) 226

11.4 Holland M. Smith Studies Marine Landings (1932) 229

11.5 Fairfax Downey Parodies “The Caisson Song” (1936) 231

11.6 George C. Marshall Speaks to Historians (1939) 233

11.7 Harold R. Stark Recommends Plan Dog (1940) 236

Chapter 12: Fighting World War II 240

12.1 Franklin D. Roosevelt Calls for War (1941) 241

12.2 Raymond A. Spruance Defends Midway (1942) 242

12.3 Charles C. Winnia Flies in the South Pacific (1943) 245

12.4 Grant Hirabayashi Volunteers for Combat (1944) 248

12.5 Dwight D. Eisenhower Invades Normandy (1944) 250

12.6 Congress Passes the GI Bill (1944) 253

12.7 Bill Mauldin Depicts Willie and Joe (1944) 256

12.8 Melvin E. Bush Crosses the Siegfried Line (1945) 257

12.9 Jacqueline Cochran Praises the WASPs (1945) 260

12.10 B-29s Drop Atomic Bombs on Japan (1945) 262

Chapter 13: A Cold War Begins 266

13.1 James V. Forrestal Manages the Pentagon (1948) 267

13.2 Omar Bradley Discusses Desegregation (1949) 269

13.3 Harry S. Truman Intervenes in Korea (1950) 271

13.4 Douglas MacArthur Addresses Congress (1951) 274

13.5 Spike Selmyhr Maneuvers in Korea (1951) 277

13.6 Claudius O. Wolfe Reveals Communist Atrocities (1953) 280

13.7 Maxwell D. Taylor Suggests a Flexible Response (1955) 282

13.8 Presidential Candidates Debate the Arms Race (1960) 285

Chapter 14: The Tragedy of Vietnam 288

14.1 Herbert L. Ogier Patrols in the Tonkin Gulf (1964) 289

14.2 Lyndon Johnson Escalates the War (1965) 291

14.3 Carolyn H. Tanaka Encounters Casualties (1967) 293

14.4 John S. McCain Enters Hanoi (1967) 296

14.5 William C. Westmoreland Reacts to Tet (1968) 298

14.6 The Gates Commission Proposes an All-Volunteer Force (1970) 300

14.7 George J. Eade Assesses the Christmas Bombings (1972) 303

14.8 Veterans Review Apocalypse Now (1979) 306

Chapter 15: A New Military 309

15.1 Ronald Reagan Announces SDI (1983) 310

15.2 Lee Greenwood Releases “God Bless the U.S.A.” (1984) 313

15.3 Colin L. Powell Evaluates National Security (1989) 314

15.4 H. Norman Schwarzkopf Defends the Persian Gulf (1990) 317

15.5 Daniel L. Davis Sees Action in Desert Storm (1991) 319

15.6 Congress Approves “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (1993) 323

15.7 Wesley K. Clark Lauds NATO (1999) 325

Chapter 16: Global War on Terror 329

16.1 Henrietta Snowden Renders September 11 (2001) 330

16.2 George W. Bush Condemns an Axis of Evil (2002) 331

16.3 Jessica Lynch Soldiers in Iraq (2003) 334

16.4 Pete Van Hooser Reveres the SEALs (2005) 336

16.5 FM 2-22.3 Guides the Interrogation of Detainees (2006) 338

16.6 David H. Petraeus Counters an Insurgency (2007) 341

16.7 Robert Gates Speaks at West Point (2009) 344

Full Chronology 349

Sources and Credits 357

Index 369

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Brad D. Lookingbill is Professor and Chair of the Department of History and Social Sciences at Columbia College of Missouri. He is the author of War Dance at Fort Marion: Plains Indian War Prisoners (2006) and Dust Bowl, USA: Depression America and the Ecological Imagination (2001), and the recipient of the 2009 American Historical Association’s Eugene Asher Distinguished Teaching Award. While earning his B.A., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in history, he served in the Army National Guard.
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  • Presents a comprehensive collection of primary documents relating to America’s armed forces from the colonial period to the present
  • Features documents which introduce key people, events, and turning points in American military history
  • Explores the importance of events not only in terms of military history, but also on a social and cultural level for the country at large
  • Includes an ancillary website featuring an online resource center, links to additional material, maps, and a glossary to aid instructors and students, available at http://www.ccis.edu/faculty/bdlookingbill/
See More
“A rich and diverse set of primary texts, chosen with care and unified by a clear sense of the key themes in American military history and respect for the experiences of those who fought.”
Beth Bailey, Temple University

“Lookingbill’s collection brilliantly combines social, cultural, economic, and technological sources of military history without forsaking coherence or focus, providing readers multiple approaches into the development of American military institutions and practices.”
Mark Eifler, University of Portland
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