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Solutions for Climate Change Challenges in the Built Environment

ISBN: 978-1-4051-9507-2
368 pages
March 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Solutions for Climate Change Challenges in the Built Environment (140519507X) cover image
The multi-disciplinary perspective provided here offers a strategic view on built environment issues and improve understanding of how built environment activities potentially induce global warming and climate change. It also highlights solutions to these challenges.

Solutions to Climate change Challenges in the Built Environment helps develop an appreciation of the diverse themes of the climate change debate across the built environment continuum. A wide perspective is provided through contributions from physical, environmental, social, economic and political scientists. This strategic view on built environment issues will be useful to researchers as well as policy experts and construction practitioners wanting a holistic view.

This book clarifies complex issues around climate change and follows five main themes: climate change experiences; urban landscape development; urban management issues; measurement of impact; and the future. Chapters are written by eminent specialists from both academic and professional backgrounds. The main context for chapters is the developed world but the discussion is widened to incorporate regional issues.

The book will be valuable to researchers and students in all the built environment disciplines, as well as to practitioners involved with the design, construction and maintenance of buildings, and government organisations developing and implementing climate change policy.

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Contributors xiii

Chapter 1 Introductory Insights to Climate Change Challenges 1
Felix N. Hammond, Colin A. Booth, Jessica E. Lamond and David G. Proverbs

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Climate Change Theory 2

1.3 The Controversy and Context 5

1.4 Organisation of the Book 8

Chapter 2 Climate Change: Nature and Emerging Trends 11
Mark McCarthy

2.1 Introduction to the Climate System and Changes to the Radiative Forcing 11

2.2 Emerging Trends (Global) 13

2.3 Emerging Trends (UK) 17

2.4 Climate Trends and the Built Environment 19

2.5 Solutions 20

Chapter 3 Regional Implications 23
Ana Lopez

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 Climate Modelling 23

3.3 Projections of Future Climate Change 27

3.4 Solutions to the Challenges of Interpreting Climate Change Projections for the Characterisation of Climatic Risks 30

Chapter 4 Urbanization and Climate Change 33
Felix N. Hammond, Kwasi Baffour Awuah Gyau and Stanislaus Y. Adiaba

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 State of the World’s Urbanization 33

4.3 Impact of Urbanization on Climate Change 35

4.4 How Does Urbanization Affect Climate Change? 36

4.5 Solutions for Change 39

4.6 Conclusion 41

Chapter 5 Global Political Initiatives and Overtones 45
Jean-Luc Salagnac

5.1 Introduction 45

5.2 Climate and the Built Environment 45

5.3 Background to Political Initiatives 47

5.4 Mitigation and Adaptation Policies 50

5.5 Solutions to Climate Change Challenges for the Built Environment 53

Chapter 6 Green Economics Dialogue and the Built Environment 57
Miriam Kennet

6.1 Introduction 57

6.2 Examples of Unsustainable Building Practices 59

6.3 The Choices We Face 62

6.4 Green Projects in Action 68

6.5 Conclusions 72

Chapter 7 Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment 75
Joseph Somevi

7.1 Introduction 75

7.2 Strategic Environmental Assessment 76

7.3 Contributions of SEA to Climate Change Solutions 77

7.4 Concluding Remarks 84

Chapter 8 Methods for Valuing Preferences for Environmental and Natural Resources: An Overview 87
Jessica E. Lamond and Ian Bateman

8.1 Introduction 87

8.2 Monetary Evaluation of Environmental Preferences: Theory 89

8.3 Methods for Monetary Evaluation of Environmental Preferences 91

8.4 Solutions to Valuation of Environmental and Natural Resources 95

Chapter 9 Ecological Value of Urban Environments 99
Ian C. Trueman and Christopher H. Young

9.1 Introduction 99

9.2 Ecological Value 100

9.3 Urban Habitats 101

9.4 Landscape Scales and Urban Areas 106

9.5 Ecological Implications of Climate Change 107

9.6 Implications of Climate Change for Urban Ecology 108

9.7 Solutions to Climate Change Challenges for the Built Environment 108

Chapter 10 The Pedological Value of Urban Landscapes 113
Jim Webb, Michael A. Fullen and Winfried E.H. Blum

10.1 Introduction 113

10.2 Urban Soils: The ‘Grey Areas’ on Soil Maps 113

10.3 Policy Responses for Urban Soils 119

Chapter 11 Insights and Perceptions of Sustainable Design and Construction 127
David W. Beddoes and Colin A. Booth

11.1 Introduction 127

11.2 Sustainable Construction 128

11.3 Drivers for Sustainable Construction 130

11.4 Rethinking Construction 135

11.5 Thoughts for Change 137

11.6 Concluding Remarks 138

Chapter 12 Progress in Eco and Resilient Construction Materials Development 141
Jamal M. Khatib

12.1 Introduction 141

12.2 Concrete 142

12.3 Brick and Masonry 144

12.4 Glass 145

12.5 Timber and Bamboo 145

12.6 Steel 146

12.7 Polymer-based Materials 147

12.8 Nanotechnology 148

12.9 Future Trends 149

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency: Alternative Routes to Mitigation 153
David Coley

13.1 Introduction 153

13.2 Energy Efficiency 153

13.3 Carbon Sequestration and Climate Engineering 155

13.4 A Sustainable, Low-Carbon Future? 157

13.5 Solutions: Abatement Costs 161

Chapter 14 The Benefits of Green Infrastructure in Towns and Cities 163
Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth

14.1 Introduction 163

14.2 Integrating Vegetation into the Built Environment 163

14.3 Intercepting Rainfall and Reducing Flood Risk 167

14.4 Enhancing Urban Biodiversity 168

14.5 Limiting the Overheating of Buildings 169

14.6 Improving Human Health and Wellbeing 171

14.7 Sequestering Carbon to Offset CO2 Emissions 172

14.8 'Green Infrastructure' Solutions for Climate Change Challenges 173

14.9 Conclusions 176

Chapter 15 Particulate-Induced Soiling on Historic Limestone Buildings: Insights and the Effects of Climate Change 181
David E. Searle

15.1 Introduction 181

15.2 Urban Particulate Pollution 182

15.3 Soiling of Buildings 182

15.4 The Bath Study 184

15.5 Insights from the Bath Study 186

15.6 Effects of Climate Change on the Soiling of Buildings 188

15.7 Conclusions 188

Chapter 16 Sustainable Transportation 193
Panagiotis Georgakis and Christopher Nwagboso

16.1 Introduction 193

16.2 Climate Change and Sustainable Transportation 194

16.3 Perspectives of Sustainable Transportation 195

16.4 Development of Sustainable Transportation Systems 197

16.5 Solutions for Sustainable Transportation 203

Chapter 17 Linkages of Waste Management Strategies and Climate Change Issues 207
Kim Tannahill and Colin A. Booth

17.1 Introduction 207

17.2 Integrated Solutions Approach 209

17.3 Key Policy Drivers: A European Perspective 216

17.4 Solutions for the Waste Management Sector 219

Chapter 18 Climate Change and the Geotechnical Stability of 'Engineered' Landfill Sites 223
Robert W. Sarsby

18.1 Introduction 223

18.2 Ground Instability Effects 224

18.3 Stability of Soil Slopes 225

18.4 Soil Shear Strength 229

18.5 Landfill Sites 231

18.6 Insights and Solutions 235

Chapter 19 Water Resources Issues and Solutions for the Built Environment: Too Little versus Too Much 237
Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth

19.1 Introduction 237

19.2 Too Little Water: Water Supply Shortages 238

19.3 Too Much Water: Urban Flooding 242

19.4 Property- Level Flood Resistance versus Resilience Measures 246

19.5 Present and Future Water Resources Solutions 247

19.6 Conclusions 248

Chapter 20 Organisational Culture and Climate Change Driven Construction 251
Nii A. Ankrah and Patrick A. Manu

20.1 Introduction 251

20.2 Climate Change and Construction 251

20.3 Climate Change Driven Construction 252

20.4 The Role of Culture 253

20.5 The Culture of the UK Construction Industry 256

20.6 Achieving and Sustaining a Culture of Sustainability 257

20.7 Theory to Practice – Case Study 263

20.8 Emerging Solutions for a More Responsive Climate Change Culture in Construction 265

Chapter 21 Preparing for Extreme Weather Events: A Risk Assessment Approach 269
Keith Jones

21.1 Introduction 269

21.2 What Is an Extreme Weather Event? 270

21.3 Relationship between Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity 271

21.4 A Risk Assessment Framework Model 276

21.5 Solutions: A New Risk Framework Model 277

21.6 Final Thoughts 279

Chapter 22 The Socio-environmental Vulnerability Assessment Approach to Mapping Vulnerability to Climate 283
Fiifi Amoako Johnson, Craig W. Hutton and Mike J. Clarke

22.1 Introduction 283

22.2 The SEVA Approach 284

22.3 Results 291

22.4 Conclusions 299

Chapter 23 Mitigation via Renewables 303
David Coley

23.1 Introduction 303

23.2 Current World Sustainable Energy Provision 304

23.3 Solar Power 305

23.4 Photovoltaics 308

23.5 Wind Power 308

23.6 Wave Power 310

23.7 Large-Scale Hydropower 310

23.8 Tidal Power 313

23.9 Biomass 314

23.10 Geothermal 316

23.11 Nuclear: Fast Breeders and Fusion 317

23.12 The Hydrogen Economy and Fuel Cells 318

23.13 Solutions 319

Chapter 24 Complexities and Approaches to Managing the Adaptation of Climate Change by Coastal Communities 321
Annie T. Worsley, Vanessa J.C. Holden, Jennifer A. Millington and Colin A. Booth

24.1 Introduction – What's Special about the Coast? 321

24.2 Coastal Landforms and Process 322

24.3 Challenges Facing Coastal Communities 323

24.4 Ways of Managing Coastal Challenges 324

24.5 Shoreline Management Plans 325

24.6 Case Study: The North Sefton Coast 326

24.7 Solutions for Coastal Communities 333

Chapter 25 Lessons for the Future 337
Jessica E. Lamond, David G. Proverbs, Colin A. Booth and Felix N. Hammond

25.1 Introduction 337

25.2 Technological Solutions 338

25.3 Working with the Natural Environment 339

25.4 Enabling Change 340

25.5 Final Remarks 342

Index 343

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Colin Booth, Senior Lecturer, Construction and Infrastructure, School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton

Felix N. Hammond, Lecturer, Construction and Infrastructure, School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton

Jessica Lamond, Post Doctoral Research Fellow, Construction and Infrastructure, School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton

David G. Proverbs, Professor and Head of Department, Construction and Property, Faculty of Environment and Technology, University of the West of England

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“The editors also contribute and pull the whole book together.   It is very well referenced and suitably illustrated with black and white photos and diagrams.”  (Building Engineer, 1 November 2012)

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