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Sustainable Refurbishment

ISBN: 978-1-4051-9508-9
290 pages
October 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Sustainable Refurbishment (1405195088) cover image
This guide to green 'retro-fitting' for corporate real estate, facility managers and occupiers struggling to reduce their building’s carbon footprint will help in the planning and management of a sustainable refurbishment programme.

Facilities managers have a key role in improving and maintaining a building’s sustainability credentials over its whole life – through benchmarking and developing improvement strategies, energy efficiency measures and installation of low carbon technologies, as well as through waste minimisation and appropriate material use.

The first part of the book gives the context, providing the structure and linkage between the other chapters, together with an overview on sustainable development and refurbishment projects separately and the value gained from a sustainable refurbishment.

Part 2 details the regulatory and financial drivers, together with market pressures, and provides an overview of where this is leading together with the implications for sustainable refurbishment.

Part 3 provides technical support on carbon measures, helping to determine the feasibility of good practices as part of the refurbishment. Included is a review of energy efficiency, renewable and low carbon technologies and embodied carbon to enable lifecycle carbon calculations, together with the necessary behavioural change aspects needed to embed the changes. Linkages and benefits between the technologies will be highlighted.

Part 4 reviews refurbishment from a wider environmental perspective, understanding the challenges and opportunities that exist for particular developments from a materials, water, biodiversity and transport perspective.

Throughout the book, checklists are provided on typical activities and good practice that should be performed. These are expanded through relevant case studies and examples to show-case previous good practices and lessons learnt.

The book is structured to allow a matrix approach, with Parts 3 and 4 providing the technical information necessary to deliver a sustainable refurbishment; with sector relevance and best practice with case studies throughout the book.

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Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Abbreviations xii

Part 1 Introduction to Building Refurbishment 1

Chapter 1 What is Building Refurbishment? 3

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Definitions of Refurbishment 5

1.3 Building Refurbishment Market and Size 10

Endnotes 14

Chapter 2 Sustainable Refurbishment 15

2.1 Introduction 16

2.2 Overview of Sustainable Development 17

2.3 Sustainable Development and Building Refurbishment 29

Endnotes 33

Chapter 3 Occupant Evaluation 34

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Changes in Work Patterns 37

3.3 Pre- and Post-Occupancy Evaluations (POE) 38

Endnotes 45

Part 2 Managing Refurbishment as a Process 47

Chapter 4 Drivers for Sustainable Refurbishment? 49

4.1 Market Pressures 50

4.2 Return on Investment 55

4.3 Regulatory Incentives 60

4.4 Financial Incentives and Taxes 65

4.5 Climate Change 71

4.6 Corporate Responsibility 76

4.7 Skills 79

Endnotes 81

Chapter 5 Developing a Business Plan and Strategy 84

5.1 Costs and Risks to Refurbish 85

5.2 Barriers to Refurbishment 86

5.3 Delivering Commercially Viable Refurbishment 87

5.4 Factors to Consider to Improve the Performance 88

5.5 Defining the Strategy 89

Endnotes 89

Chapter 6 Managing Delivery 90

6.1 Delivering a Sustainable Refurbishment 91

6.2 Minor Refurbishment Approach 92

6.3 Major and Comprehensive Refurbishment Approach 94

6.4 Green Leases 96

6.5 ISO 14001 Environmental Management Standards 98

6.6 Energy Star 101

6.7 Managing-Delivery Checklist 102

Endnote 102

Chapter 7 Managing Impacts 103

7.1 International Standards 104

7.2 LEED and BREEAM 106

7.3 Project Sustainability Assessment 110

7.4 Performance Improvements from Standards 114

7.5 Behavioural Change 116

Endnotes 117

Part 3 Low-Carbon Technologies and Materials 119

Chapter 8 Energy-Efficiency Measures 121

8.1 Introduction 122

8.2 Refurbishment Options and Approach 125

8.3 Assessing Costs of Energy-Efficiency Measures 130

8.4 Fabric and Passive Energy-Efficiency Measures 134

8.5 Energy-Efficiency Measures – Mechanical 141

8.6 ESCOs and Energy-Performance Contracting 148

8.7 Energy-Efficiency and Low-Carbon Checklist 154

8.8 Health and Indoor-Environment Checklist 155

Endnotes 156

Chapter 9 Behavioural Change 157

9.1 Commissioning Buildings 158

9.2 Energy Conservation as a Behaviour 160

Endnotes 164

Chapter 10 Renewable Energy 165

10.1 Introduction 166

10.2 Photovoltaic (PV) Panels 168

10.3 Solar Thermal Hot-Water Systems 170

10.4 Wind Turbines 173

10.5 Biofuel Heating 175

10.6 Geothermal Energy 179

10.7 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) 180

10.8 Heat Pumps 183

Endnote 185

Chapter 11 Embodied Carbon 186

11.1 Introduction 187

11.2 Embodied Carbon Standards 188

11.3 Varying Embodied Carbon Values in Buildings 192

Case Study 1 – London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority (LFEPA): Energy Case Study 196

Case Study 2 – 89 Culford Road: Extreme Low-Carbon Dwelling Refurbishment 202

Case Study 3 – Empire State Building to Become a Model of Energy 205

Endnotes 214

Part 4 Environmental Areas 215

Chapter 12 Material Use and Resource Efficiency 217

12.1 Introduction 218

12.2 Material-Certification Schemes 219

12.3 Material Procurement 221

12.4 Designing-in Sustainable Materials 222

12.5 Material Resource Efficiency 224

12.6 Site Waste Management 226

12.7 Materials and Resource Efficiency Checklist 230

Endnotes 231

Chapter 13 Water Conservation 233

13.1 Performing a Water Audit 234

13.2 Reducing Water Use 236

13.3 Rainwater Harvesting 238

13.4 Flood Risk and Sustainable Drainage Systems 240

13.5 Water-Conservation Checklist 240

Endnote 241

Chapter 14 Biodiversity 242

14.1 Introduction 243

14.2 Green Roofs and Walls 244

14.3 Provision for Birds 253

14.4 Biodiversity Checklist 254

Endnotes 255

Chapter 15 Transport 256

15.1 Developing a Travel Plan 257

15.2 Delivery Travel Plans 259

15.3 Transport Checklist 260

Glossary 262

Further Reading and Websites 266

Index 271

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Sunil Shah

Wide consultancy experience, reviewing lifecycle environmental and social impacts from facilities. Has worked across several sectors, with involvement in a range of landmark projects:

·         Environment Agency Carbon Footprint tool, recognised as an industry standard and developed for civil emgineering projects

·         Blackfriars Station sustainability management plan and Europe's largest PV array

·         BP Global Office Environmental Benchmarking, developing the software to collate, analyse and provision of footprints to BP Corporate covering the global office suite

·         Member of the Sustainable Construction Taskforce as the end user representative, involved in the Sustainable Construction Strategy

He is currently involved in a range of committees where he provides advice to the UK Government on the built environment

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“This book provides insight into the planning and management of a sustainable refurbishment project , from the point of view of the facility manager . It includes comprehensive improvement strategies and technical support , from examples of the installation of low-carbon technologies to waste minimisation and suggested material use.”  (Building Design, 16 November 2012)

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