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Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Nanotechnology

Jamie R. Lead (Editor), Emma Smith (Co-Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4443-0749-8
456 pages
July 2009, Wiley-Blackwell
Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Nanotechnology (1444307495) cover image
An increased understanding of the environmental and human health impacts of engineered nanoparticles is essential for the responsible development of nanotechnology and appropriate evidence-based policy and guidelines for risk assessment. Presenting the latest advances in the field from a variety of scientific disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive overview of this challenging, inter-disciplinary research area.

Topics covered include:

  • The properties, preparation and applications of nanomaterials
  • Characterization and analysis of manufactured nanoparticles
  • The fate and behaviour of nanomaterials in aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environments
  • Ecotoxicology and human toxicology of manufactured nanoparticles
  • Occupational health and exposure of nanomaterials
  • Risk assessment and global regulatory and policy responses

Understanding the behaviour and impacts of nanotechnology in the environment and in human health is a daunting task and many questions remain to be answered. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Nanotechnology will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology, environmental science, materials science and biology, as well as for scientists in industry, regulators and policy makers.

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Chapter 1 - Overview of Nanoscience in the Environment

M. Baalousha and J.R. Lead

1.1 Introduction

1.2 History

1.3 Definitions

1.4 Investment and International Efforts

1.5 Development: Four Anticipated Generations

1.6 Applications of Nanotechnology

1.7 Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology 

1.8 Potential Adverse Effects of Nanomaterials

1.9 Classification

1.10 Sources of Nanomaterials in the Environment

1.11 Properties of Nanomaterials

1.12 Nanomaterial Structure–Toxicity Relationship

1.13 Environmental Fate and Behaviour of Nanomaterials

1.14 Potential for Human Exposure

1.15 Detection and Characterization of Nanomaterials

1.16 Issues to be Addressed

1.17 Conclusion

1.18 References

Chapter 2 - Nanomaterials: Properties, Preparation and Applications

Paul Christian

2.1 Overview

2.2 Introduction

2.3 Nanoparticle Architecture

2.4 Particle Properties

2.5 Nanoparticle Preparation

2.6 Applications of Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology

2.7 Implication for Environmental Issues

2.8 Conclusions

2.9 References

Chapter 3 - Size/Shape–Property Relationships of Non-Carbonaceous Inorganic Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Implications

Deborah M. Aruguete, Juan Liu and Michael F. Hochella, Jr

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Inorganic Nanoparticle Anatomy

3.3 Redox Chemistry of Nanoparticles

3.4 Size Effects in Nanoparticle Sorption Processes

3.5 Nanoparticle Fate: Dissolution and Solid State Cation Movement

3.6 Effect of Nanoparticle Aggregation on Physical and Chemical Properties

3.7 Environmental Implications: General Discussion, Recommendations and Outlook

3.8 References

Chapter 4 - Natural Colloids and Nanoparticles in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments

M. Baalousha, J.R. Lead and F.v.d. Kammer and Th. Hofmann

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definition

4.3 Major Types of Environmental Colloids

4.4 Intrinsic Properties of Environmental Colloidal Particles

4.5 Interaction Forces Between Colloidal Particles

4.6 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids in Aquatic Systems

4.7 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids and Nanoparticles in Porous Media

4.8 Conclusion

4.9 References

Chapter 5 - Atmospheric Nanoparticles

Aurélie Charron and Roy M. Harrison

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.3 Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.4 Fate and Behaviour of Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.5 Atmospheric Concentrations

5.6 Measurement Methods for Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.7 Conclusions

5.8 References

Chapter 6 - Analysis and Characterization of Manufactured Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments

Martin Hassellöv and Ralf Kaegi

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Nanoparticle Analysis and Characterization Methods

6.3 Analytical Test Strategy in NP Exposure Assessment

6.4 Conclusions

6.5 Acknowledgements

6.6 References

7. Ecotoxicology of Manufactured Nanoparticles

Simon C. Apte, Nicola J. Rogers and Graeme E. Batley

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Physico-Chemical Transformation of Nanoparticles

7.3 Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Environment

7.4 Development of Valid/Realistic Toxicity Testing Protocols

7.5 Review of Ecotoxicity Studies

7.6 General Conclusions and Future Directions

7.7 References

8. Exposure to Nanoparticles

Robert J. Aitken, Karen S. Galea, C. Lang Tran and John W. Cherrie

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Physical Characteristics and Properties of Nanoparticles

8.3 Nanoparticle Exposure

8.4 Control of Exposure

8.5 Discussion

8.6 References

9. Human Toxicology and Effects of Nanoparticles

Vicki Stone, Martin Clift and Helinor Johnston

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Ultrafine Particle Toxicology

9.3 Engineered Nanoparticles

9.4 Relating Physico-Chemical Properties to Toxicity; Structure: Activity Relationships

9.5 Suggestions for Future Study Designs

9.6 Conclusions

9.7 Abbreviations

9.8 References

10. Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials

Sophie A. Rocks, Simon J. Pollard, Robert A. Dorey, Paul T. C. Harrison, Len S. Levy, Richard D. Handy, John F. Garrod and Richard Owen

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Risk Assessment Process

10.3 Nanomaterials – Issues for Risk Assessment

10.4 Assembling Evidence for Safety and Intervention

10.5 International Case Studies

10.6 Data Gaps in Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

10.7 Summary

10.8 References

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Dr Jamie Lead is Reader in Aquatic Chemistry at the University of Birmingham. He is co-editor of the book Environmental Colloids and Particles (06) Wiley.
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  • Brings together the latest information on environmental and health and safety impacts of nano-scale materials and components
  • Integrates knowledge from many different scientific disciplines, essential for researchers working in this area
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"Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Nanotechnology will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology, environmental science, materials science and biology, as well as for scientists in industry, regulators and policy developers." (Chemistry Journals, 11 April 2011)

"In this detailed volume meant for researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology, environmental science, materials science, and biology, as well as scientists in industry, regulators, and policy makers, Lead (environmental nanoscience, U. of Birmingham, UK) and Smith (environmental chemistry, U. of the West Indies, Barbados) compile chapters that assess the environmental and health impacts of nanotechnology." (Book News, September 2010)

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