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Dairy Fats and Related Products

A. Y. Tamime (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4443-1623-0
344 pages
September 2009, Wiley-Blackwell
Dairy Fats and Related Products (1444316230) cover image
Whilst milk fat has always been appreciated for its flavour, the market had suffered from concerns over cardiovascular diseases associated with the consumption of animal fats. However, recent clinical studies have indicated benefits, particularly in relation to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), in the prevention of certain diseases. The range of spreads has also increased, including the addition of probiotic organisms and/or plant extracts to reduce serum cholesterol levels.

The primary aim of this publication is to detail the state-of-the-art manufacturing methods for:

  • Cream
  • Butter
  • Yellow fat spreads, both pure milk fat based and mixtures with other fats
  • Anhydrous milk fat and its derivatives

Coverage of the manufacturing technologies is complemented by examinations of the relevant nutrition issues and analytical methods. The authors, who are all specialists in their fields in respect to these products, have been chosen from around the world. It is hoped that the book will provide a valuable reference work for dairy scientists and technologists within the dairy industry and those with similar processing requirements, as well as researchers and students, thus becoming an important component of the SDT’s Technical Series.

The Editor
Dr Adnan Y. Tamime is a Consultant in Dairy Science and Technology, Ayr, UK. He is the Series Editor of the SDT’s Technical Book Series.

For information regarding the SDT, please contact Maurice Walton, Executive Director, Society of Dairy Technology, P.O. Box 12, Appleby in Westmorland CA16 6YJ, UK. email: execdirector@sdt.org

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Published quarterly
Print ISSN: 1364 727X
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Preface to Technical Series.

Preface.

Dedication.

Contributors.

1 Milk Lipids – Composition, Origin and Properties (T. HUPPERTZ, A.L. KELLY AND P.F. FOX).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Composition of milk lipids.

1.2.1 Fatty acids.

1.2.2 Triacylglycerols.

1.2.3 Mono- and diacylglycerols and free fatty acids.

1.2.4 Phospholipids.

1.2.5 Minor constituents.

1.3 Origin of milk lipids.

1.3.1 Biosynthesis and origin of the fatty acids in milk lipids.

1.3.2 De novo synthesis of fatty acids.

1.3.3 Uptake of fatty acids from the blood.

1.3.4 Desaturation of fatty acids.

1.3.5 Synthesis of triacylglycerols.

1.4 Factors affecting the composition of milk lipids.

1.5 Intracellular origin of milk lipid globules and the milk lipid globule membrane.

1.5.1 Secretion of milk lipid globules.

1.5.2 The milk lipid globule membrane.

1.5.3 Lipids of the milk lipid globule membrane.

1.5.4 Proteins of the milk lipid globule membrane.

1.5.5 Enzymes of the milk lipid globule membrane.

1.6 Physicochemical stability of milk lipid globules.

1.6.1 Size distribution of milk lipid globules.

1.6.2 Colloidal stability of milk lipid globules.

1.6.3 Creaming of milk lipid globules.

1.6.4 Coalescence of milk lipid globules.

1.6.5 Homogenisation and properties of homogenised milk lipid globules.

1.6.6 Temperature-induced changes in milk lipid globules.

1.7 Crystallisation and melting of milk triacylglycerols.

1.8 Conclusions.

References.

2 Milk Fat Nutrition (P.W. PARODI).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Conjugated linoleic acid.

2.2.1 Origin of rumenic acid.

2.2.2 CLA nutrition.

2.2.3 CLA as an anticancer agent.

2.2.4 Rumenic acid and mammary tumour prevention.

2.2.5 CLA, RA and colon tumour prevention.

2.2.6 Rumenic acid and the prevention of atherosclerosis.

2.2.7 Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease.

2.2.8 Rumenic acid and immunomodulation.

2.2.9 Rumenic acid and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

2.2.10 Rumenic acid as a growth factor.

2.3 Sphingolipids.

2.3.1 Sphingolipids in colon cancer prevention.

2.3.2 Sphingomyelin and cholesterol absorption.

2.3.3 Sphingomyelin and the immune system.

2.3.4 Sphingolipids and intestinal diseases.

2.4 Butyric acid.

2.5 Branched chain fatty acids.

2.6 Fat-soluble components.

2.6.1 The vitamins.

2.6.2 Cholesterol.

2.6.3 Other interesting components.

2.7 Further nutritional benefits.

2.8 Perceived nutritional negatives for milk.

2.8.1 Milk fat and coronary artery disease.

2.8.2 Saturated fatty acids.

2.8.3 Fat intake and cancer.

2.8.4 Dietary fat and obesity.

2.9 Conclusions.

References.

3 Separation and Standardisation of the Fat Content (M. GUNSING, H.C. VAN DER HORST, D. ALLERSMA AND P. DE JONG).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Overview of the history of milk fat separation.

3.3 Physical models.

3.4 Standardisation of the fat content of milk.

3.5 Conclusion.

References.

4 Cream and Related Products (M.A. SMIDDY, A.L. KELLY AND T. HUPPERTZ).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Cream processing.

4.2.1 Separation.

4.2.2 Standardisation.

4.2.3 Heat treatment.

4.2.4 Homogenisation.

4.2.5 Quality of cream.

4.3 Whipping cream.

4.3.1 Production of whipping cream.

4.3.2 Whipping of the cream.

4.3.3 Characterisation of whipped cream.

4.3.4 Influence of processing conditions on whipping characteristics of cream.

4.3.5 Compositional factors affecting whipped cream characteristics.

4.3.6 Influence of stabilisers and emulsifiers on whipping characteristics of cream.

4.4 Aerosol-whipped cream.

4.4.1 Production of aerosol-whipped cream.

4.4.2 Properties of aerosol-whipped cream.

4.5 Cream liqueur.

4.5.1 Composition of cream liqueur.

4.5.2 Processing of cream liqueur.

4.5.3 Shelf-life of cream liqueur.

4.6 Cultured, fermented or sour cream.

4.6.1 Background.

4.6.2 Production of cultured, fermented or sour cream.

4.7 Coffee cream.

4.7.1 Processing of coffee cream.

4.7.2 Properties of coffee cream.

4.8 Other cream products.

4.8.1 Frozen cream.

4.8.2 Dried cream.

4.9 Conclusion.

References.

5 Butter (R.A. WILBEY).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Cream preparation.

5.2.1 Sweet cream.

5.2.2 Ripened/fermented/cultured cream.

5.2.3 Modifications of cream ageing.

5.3 Batch churning.

5.4 Continuous butter manufacture.

5.4.1 Cream feed to buttermaker.

5.4.2 Conversion to butter-grains.

5.4.3 Working.

5.4.4 Salting.

5.5 Alternative processes for cultured butters.

5.6 Alternative technologies for continuous buttermaking.

5.6.1 Low-fat route.

5.6.2 Shearing high-fat cream.

5.7 Recombined butter.

5.8 Reduced-fat butters.

5.9 Spreadable butters.

5.10 Packaging.

5.11 Flavoured butters.

5.12 Quality issues.

5.13 Concluding comments.

References.

6 Anhydrous Milk Fat Manufacture and Fractionation (D. ILLINGWORTH, G.R. PATIL AND A.Y. TAMIME).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Definitions and properties.

6.3 Production statistics.

6.4 Anhydrous milk fat/butteroil manufacture processes.

6.4.1 Principles.

6.4.2 Manufacturing options.

6.4.3 Quality of milk fat during and post manufacture.

6.5 Milk fat fraction.

6.5.1 Process options.

6.5.2 Fraction properties.

6.6 Ghee.

6.6.1 Introduction.

6.6.2 Methods of manufacture.

6.6.3 Packaging.

6.6.4 Chemical composition.

6.6.5 Flavour.

6.6.6 Physicochemical properties.

6.6.7 Texture.

6.6.8 Thermal oxidation.

6.6.9 Shelf-life of the product.

6.6.10 Nutritional aspects.

6.6.11 Ghee as a medicine.

6.7 Conclusion.

6.8 Acknowledgements.

References.

7 Production of Yellow Fats and Spreads (B.K. MORTENSEN).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Legislations.

7.3 Dairy fat spreads.

7.3.1 Introduction.

7.3.2 Production technologies.

7.3.3 Quality aspects.

7.4 Blends and blended spreads.

7.4.1 Introduction.

7.4.2 Production technologies.

7.4.3 Quality aspects.

7.5 Products with modified functionality.

7.5.1 Introduction.

7.5.2 Production technologies.

7.5.3 Applications.

7.6 Nutritionally modified products.

7.6.1 Introduction.

7.6.2 Production technologies.

7.7 Conclusions.

References.

8 Cream Cheese and Related Products (T.P. GUINEE AND M. HICKEY).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Background and development.

8.3 Definitions and standards of identity.

8.3.1 Background and evolution.

8.3.2 European legislation.

8.3.3 UK legislation.

8.3.4 Irish legislation.

8.3.5 US legislation and standards.

8.3.6 Canadian legislation and standards.

8.3.7 German cheese legislation with particular reference to cream cheese-type products.

8.3.8 Danish cheese legislation with particular reference to cream cheese-type products.

8.3.9 French cheese legislation with reference to some cream cheese-type products.

8.3.10 Italian standard on Mascarpone.

8.3.11 Cheese legislation in Australia.

8.3.12 Codex Alimentarius – international standards for cheese and cream cheese.

8.4 Cream cheese.

8.4.1 Principles of manufacture.

8.4.2 Manufacture stages.

8.4.3 Recombination technology.

8.5 Basic characterisation of the structure and rheology of cream cheese.

8.6 Factors affecting the properties of cream cheese.

8.6.1 Homogenisation of cheese milk.

8.6.2 Holding of hot curd at high temperature while shearing.

8.6.3 Homogenisation of the heated cream cheese.

8.6.4 Cooling rate.

8.6.5 Addition of whey protein.

8.6.6 Hydrocolloids.

8.6.7 Composition.

8.7 Related cheese varieties.

8.7.1 Mascarpone.

8.7.2 Neufchâtel and Petit-Suisse.

8.7.3 Kajmak.

8.8 Conclusion.

References.

9 Microbial Production of Bioactive Metabolites (S. MILLS, R.P. ROSS, G. FITZGERALD AND C. STANTON).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Short-chain fatty acids.

9.2.1 Background.

9.2.2 Production of short-chain fatty acids in the colon.

9.2.3 Role of short-chain fatty acids in health and disease.

9.3 Gamma amino butyric acid.

9.3.1 Introduction.

9.3.2 Gamma amino butyric acid effects.

9.4 Overall conclusion.

9.5 Acknowledgements.

References.

10 Trouble Shooting (B.B.C. WEDDING AND H.C. DEETH).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Milk.

10.2.1 Transmitted flavours.

10.2.2 Chemical flavours.

10.2.3 Flavours associated with oxidation.

10.2.4 Flavours associated with heat treatment.

10.2.5 Bacterial flavours.

10.2.6 Lipolysed flavour.

10.2.7 Proteolysis.

10.2.8 Antibiotics.

10.3 Cream.

10.3.1 Transmitted flavours.

10.3.2 Microbiological defects.

10.3.3 Defects associated with oxidation.

10.3.4 Physical defects and stability.

10.3.5 Lipolysis.

10.3.6 Defects associated with whipped cream.

10.3.7 Defects associated with coffee cream.

10.3.8 Defects associated with UHT cream.

10.3.9 Defects associated with sterilised cream.

10.4 Butter.

10.4.1 Microbiological defects.

10.4.2 Cultured butter.

10.4.3 Butter churning defects.

10.4.4 Oxidative defects.

10.4.5 Physical defects.

10.5 Dairy spreads.

10.5.1 Fat phase structure.

10.5.2 Microbiological defects.

10.5.3 Oxidative defects.

10.6 Cream cheese.

10.6.1 Microbiological defects.

10.6.2 Emulsion stability.

10.6.3 Flavour defects.

10.6.4 Texture defects.

10.6.5 Oxidative defects.

10.7 Conclusion.

References.

Index.

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Dr Adnan Y. Tamime is a Consultant in Dairy Science and Technology, Ayr, UK. He is the Series Editor of the SDT's Technical Book Series.
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Part of the Society of Dairy Technology Series

Covers the manufacturing methods, scientific aspects and properties of dairy fats such as butters, creams and spreads

Includes a chapter on the nutritional values of dairy fats


Edited by a internationally known and respected industry figure


Contains commercially important information for the dairy industry

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"A strong point of this book is the discussion of the nutritional properties of milk fat. It blows away some common misconceptions and argues a powerful case for the benefits of fat components wit specific health benefits. This book represents good value and is a must for students and for technologists with an interest in all aspects of milk fat processing." (Journal of Dairy Technology, August 2009)
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