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Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts: Radioactive, Toxic and Hazardous Wastes

ISBN: 978-1-4443-1937-8
526 pages
May 2010, Wiley-Blackwell
Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts: Radioactive, Toxic and Hazardous Wastes (144431937X) cover image
  • The safe storage in glass-based materials of both radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous wastes is covered in a single book, making it unique
  • Provides a comprehensive and timely reference source at this critical time in waste management, including an extensive and up-to-date bibliography in all areas outlined to waste conversion and related technologies, both radioactive and non-radioactive
  • Brings together all aspects of waste vitrification, draws comparisons between the different types of wastes and treatments, and outlines where lessons learnt in the radioactive waste field can be of benefit in the treatment of non-radioactive wastes
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Preface page.


List of Abbreviations.

1. Introduction.

1.1 Categories of Waste and Waste Generation in the Modern World.

1.1.1 Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power and Defence Operations.

1.1.2 Toxic and Hazardous Wastes.

1.1.3 Other Sources of Waste Material.

1.2 General Disposal Options.

1.3 Radiation Issues.

1.4 Waste Disposal and the Oklo Natural Nuclear Reactors.

1.5 Nuclear Accidents and the Lessons Learnt.


2. Materials Toxicity and Biological Effects.

2.1 Metals.

2.1.1 Beryllium, Barium and Radium.

2.1.2 Vanadium.

2.1.3 Chromium, Molybdenum and Tungsten.

2.1.4 Manganese, Technetium and Rhenium.

2.1.5 Platinum-Group Metals.

2.1.6 Nickel.

2.1.7 Copper, Silver and Gold.

2.1.8 Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury.

2.1.9 Aluminium and Thallium.

2.1.10 Tin and Lead.

2.1.11 Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth.

2.1.12 Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium.

2.1.13 Thorium, Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium.

2.2 Compounds.

2.3 Asbestos.


3. Glass and Ceramic Based Systems and General Processing Methods.

3.1 Glass Formation.

3.1.1 Glass-Forming Ability.

3.1.2 Thermal Stability.

3.2 Types of Glass.

3.2.1 Silicate and Borosilicate Glasses.

3.2.2 Phosphate Glasses.

3.2.3 Rare Earth Oxide Glasses.

3.2.4 Alternative Glasses.

3.3 Ceramics.

3.4 Glass-Ceramics.

3.5 Glass and Ceramic Based Composite Systems.

3.6 Processing of Glass and Ceramic Materials.

3.6.1 Melting and Vitrification.

3.6.2 Powder Processing and Sintering.

3.6.3 Hot Pressing.

3.6.4 Sol-Gel Processing.

3.6.5 Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis.

3.6.6 Microwave Processing.


4. Materials Characterization.

4.1 Chemical Analysis.

4.2 Thermal Analysis.

4.3 Structural Analysis.

4.3.1 Optical and Electron Microscopy.

4.3.2 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy.

4.3.3 X-ray and Neutron Diffraction.

4.3.4 Infra-Red and Raman Spectroscopy.

4.3.5 Mössbauer Spectroscopy.

4.3.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

4.4 Mechanical Properties.

4.4.1 Fracture Mechanics.

4.4.2 Flexural Strength of Materials.

4.4.3 Lifetime Behaviour.

4.5 Chemical Durability and Standardized Tests.

4.6 Radiation Stability.

4.7 Other Properties Relevant to Wasteforms.

4.8 Use of Nonradioactive Surrogates.


5. Radioactive Wastes.

5.1 Sources and Waste Stream Compositions.

5.1.1 Nuclear Reactor Spent Fuel Wastes.

5.1.2 Defence Wastes.

5.1.3 Surplus Materials.

5.1.4 Special or Unusual Categories of Radioactive Waste.

5.2 General Immobilization Options.


6. Immobilization by Vitrification.

6.1 Vitrification History and the Advancement of Melter Design.

6.1.1 Pot Processes.

6.1.2 Continuous Melting by Induction Furnace.

6.1.3 Joule-Heated Ceramic Melters.

6.1.4 Cold Crucible Induction Melters.

6.1.5 Plasma Arc/Torch Melters.

6.1.6 Microwave Processing.

6.1.7 In situ Melting.

6.1.8 Bulk Vitrification.

6.1.9 Alternative Melting Techniques.

6.1.10 Vitrification Incidents and the Lessons that have been Learnt.

6.2 Difficult Waste Constituents.

6.2.1 Molybdenum and Caesium.

6.2.2 Platinum Group Metals.

6.2.3 Technetium.

6.2.4 Chromium, Nickel and Iron.

6.2.5 Halides.

6.2.6 Sulphates.

6.2.7 Phosphates.

6.3 Effect of Specific Batch Additives on Melting Performance.

6.4 Types of Glass and Candidate Glass Requirements.

6.4.1 Silicate and Borosilicate Glass.

6.4.2 Phosphate Glasses.

6.4.3 Rare Earth Oxide Glasses.

6.4.4 Alternative Glasses.

6.5 Glass-Forming Ability.

6.6 Alternative Methods for Producing Glassy Wasteforms.

6.6.1 Sintered and Porous Glass.

6.6.2 Hot-Pressed Glass.

6.6.3 Microwave Sintering.

6.6.4 Self-Sustaining Vitrification.

6.6.5 Plasma Torch Incineration and Vitrifi cation.


7. Immobilization of Radioactive Materials as a Ceramic Wasteform.

7.1 Titanate and Zirconate Ceramics.

7.2 Phosphate Ceramics.

7.3 Aluminosilicate Ceramics.

7.4 Alternative Ceramics.

7.5 Cement Based Systems.


8. Immobilization of Radioactive Materials as a Glass-Ceramic Wasteform.

8.1 Barium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramics.

8.2 Barium Titanium Silicate Glass-Ceramics.

8.3 Calcium Magnesium Silicate Glass-Ceramics.

8.4 Calcium Titanium Silicate Glass-Ceramics.

8.5 Basaltic Glass-Ceramics.

8.6 Zirconolite Based Glass-Ceramics.

8.7 Alternative Silicate Based Glass-Ceramics.

8.8 Phosphate Based Glass-Ceramics.


9. Novel Hosts for the Immobilization of Special or Unusual Categories of Radioactive Wastes.

9.1 Silicate Glasses.

9.2 Phosphate Glasses.

9.3 Alternative Vitrification Routes.

9.4 Ceramic-Based Hosts.

9.5 Glass-Encapsulated Composite and Hybrid Systems.

9.6 Oxynitride Glasses.

9.7 Plutonium Disposition.


10. Properties of Radioactive Wasteforms.

10.1 Thermal Stability.

10.2 Chemical Durability.

10.2.1 General Principles of Glass Durability.

10.2.2 Durability of Silicate Based Glasses in Water.

10.2.3 Durability of Silicate Based Glasses in Groundwaters and Repository Environments.

10.2.4 Durability of Phosphate Based Glasses.

10.2.5 Lessons to be Learnt from Archaeological Glasses.

10.2.6 Ceramic Durability.

10.2.7 Glass-Ceramic Durability.

10.2.8 Durability of Glass-Encapsulated Ceramic Hybrid Wasteforms.

10.2.9 Influence of Colloids.

10.3 Radiation Stability.

10.3.1 Glass Stability.

10.3.2 Ceramic Stability.

10.3.3 Glass-Encapsulated Ceramic Hybrid Stability.

10.4 Natural Analogues.

10.5 Mechanical Properties.

10.6 Alternative Properties.


11. Structural and Modelling Studies.

11.1 Structural Studies.

11.1.1 Vitreous Wasteforms.

11.1.2 Ceramic Wasteforms.

11.2 Modelling Studies.

11.2.1 Modelling Techniques.

11.2.2 Vitreous Wasteforms.

11.2.3 Ceramic Wasteforms.


12. Sources and Compositions of Nonradioactive Toxic and Hazardous Wastes, and Common Disposal Routes.

12.1 Incinerator Wastes.

12.2 Sewage and Dredging Sludges.

12.3 Zinc Hydrometallurgical and Red Mud Wastes.

12.4 Blast Furnace Slags and Electric Arc Furnace Dusts.

12.5 Alternative Metallurgical Wastes and Slags.

12.6 Metal Finishing and Plating Wastes.

12.7 Coal Ash and Fly Ash from Thermal Power Stations.

12.8 Cement Dust and Clay-Refining Wastes.

12.9 Tannery Industry Wastes.

12.10 Asbestos.

12.11 Medical Wastes.

12.12 Electrical and Electronic Wastes.

12.13 Alternative Wastes.


13. Vitrification of Nonradioactive Toxic and Hazardous Wastes.

13.1 Incinerator Wastes.

13.2 Sewage and Dredging Sludges.

13.3 Zinc Hydrometallurgical and Red Mud Wastes.

13.4 Blast Furnace Slags and Electric Arc Furnace Dusts.

13.5 Alternative Metallurgical Wastes and Slags.

13.6 Metal Finishing and Plating Wastes.

13.7 Coal Ash and Fly Ash from Thermal Power Stations.

13.8 Cement Dust, Clay-Refining and Tannery Industry Wastes.

13.9 Asbestos.

13.10 Medical Waste.

13.11 Electrical and Electronic Wastes.

13.12 Alternative Wastes.

13.13 Mixed Nonradioactive Hazardous Wastes.

13.14 Glass-Ceramics for Nonradioactive Waste Immobilization.

13.15 Commercial Hazardous Waste Vitrification Facilities.


14. Alternative Treatment Processes, and Characterization, Properties and Applications of Nonradioactive Wasteforms.

14.1 Alternatives to Vitrification.

14.2 Use of Alternative Waste Sources to Prepare New Materials.

14.3 Use of Waste Glass to Prepare New Materials.

14.4 Characterization, Properties and Applications of Nonradioactive Wasteforms.

14.4.1 Mechanical Properties.

14.4.2 Chemical Durability.

14.4.3 Structural and Modelling Studies.

14.4.4 Use of Less Hazardous or Nontoxic Surrogates.

14.5 Applications.


15. Influence of Organic, Micro-Organism and Microbial Activity on Wasteform Integrity.

15.1 Micro-Organism Activity and Transport Mechanisms.

15.2 Repository Environments.

15.3 Repository Analogues.

15.4 Wasteforms.


16. Concluding Remarks, Comparisons between Radioactive and Nonradioactive Waste Immobilization, and Outlook for the Future.

16.1 Mixed Radioactive and Nonradioactive Wastes.

16.2 System and Wasteform Comparisons.

16.2.1 Treatment Facilities.

16.2.2 Wasteforms.

16.3 Immediate and Short-Term Future Outlook.

16.4 Medium and Longer Term Future Outlook.

16.4.1 Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.

16.4.2 Element Partitioning and Transmutation.

16.5 Choosing a Wasteform.

16.5.1 Wasteforms Studied in the Past and Short-Term Future Direction.

16.5.2 Alternative Wasteforms and Longer Term Future Direction.

16.6 Wasteform Characterization.

16.7 Standards, Regulatory Requirements, and Performance Assessments.

16.8 Overall Conclusions.



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"The author's renowned expertise in immobilisation technology for wastes is clearly reflected in this book, which provides an exhaustive review of the subject. It would benefit readers involved in waste management of both nuclear and nonradioactive industries." (Materials World, 1 January 2012)

"I am recommending to everyone interested to read the book of Prof Donald on glass and ceramic hosts: you will find a wealth of factual data on glasses and ceramics as well as bright ideas and hints for your activities." (Materials Views, 27 April 2011)

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