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Syntax: A Generative Introduction, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-4443-2686-4
512 pages
June 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Syntax: A Generative Introduction, 2nd Edition (1444326864) cover image

Description

Building on the success of the bestselling first edition, the second edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the major issues in Principles and Parameters syntactic theory, including phrase structure, the lexicon, case theory, movement, and locality conditions.
  • Includes new and extended problem sets in every chapter, all of which have been annotated for level and skill type
  • Features three new chapters on advanced topics including vP shells, object shells, control, gapping and ellipsis and an additional chapter on advanced topics in binding
  • Offers a brief survey of both Lexical-Functional Grammar and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar
  • Succeeds in strengthening the reader's foundational knowledge, and prepares them for more advanced study
  • Supported by an instructor's manual and online resources for students and instructors, available at www.blackwellpublishing.com/carnie
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments.

Part 1: Preliminaries:.

1. Generative Grammar.

0. Preliminaries.

1. Syntax as a Cognitive Science.

2. Modeling Syntax.

3. Syntax as Science – the Scientific Method.

An Example of the Scientific Method as Applied to Syntax.

Sources of Data.

4. Where do the Rules Come From?.

Learning vs. Acquisition.

Innateness: Language as an Instinct.

The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition.

Other Arguments for UG.

Explaining Language Variation.

5. Choosing among Theories about Syntax.

6. The Scientific Method and the Structure of this Textbook.

7 Summary.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

2. Parts of Speech.

0. Words and Why They Matter to Syntax.

1. Determining Part of Speech.

The Problem of Traditional Definitions.

Distributional Criteria.

2. The Major Parts of Speech: N, V, Adj, and Adv.

Nouns.

Verbs.

Adjectives.

Adverbs.

3. Open vs. Closed; Lexical vs. Functional.

Open vs. Closed Parts of Speech.

Lexical vs. Functional.

Some Functional (Closed) Categories of English.

Summary.

4. Subcategories and Features.

Subcategories of Nouns.

Subcategories of Verbs.

5. Summary.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

3. Constituency, Trees, and Rules.

0. Introduction.

1. Rules and Trees.

Noun Phrases (NPs).

Adjective Phrases (AdjPs) and Adverb Phrases (AdvPs).

Prepositional Phrases (PPs).

Verb Phrases (VPs).

Clauses.

Summary.

2. How to Draw a Tree.

Bottom-up Trees.

The Top-down Method of Drawing Trees.

Bracketed Diagrams.

3. Modification and Ambiguity.

4. Constituency Tests.

5. Summary and Conclusion.

Appendix: How to do Foreign Language PSR Problems.

A1. Doing problems with word-by-word glosses.

A2. Doing problems without word-by-word glosses.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

4. Structural Relations.

0. Introduction.

1. The Parts of a Tree.

2. Domination.

Domination.

Exhaustive Domination.

Immediate Domination.

3. Precedence.

4. C-command.

5. Grammatical Relations.

6. Summary and Conclusions.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

5. Binding Theory.

0. Introduction.

1. The Notions Coindex and Antecedent.

2. Binding.

3. Locality Conditions on the Binding of Anaphors.

4. The Distribution of Pronouns.

5. The Distribution of R-expressions.

6. Conclusion.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

Part 2: The Base:.

6. X-bar Theory.

0. Introduction.

1. Bar-level Projections.

V-bar.

Adj-bar and Adv-bar.

P-bar.

2. Generalizing the Rules: The X-bar Schema.

3. Complements, Adjuncts, and Specifiers.

Complements and Adjuncts in NPs.

Complements and Adjuncts in VPs, AdjPs, AdvPs, and PPs.

The Notion Specifier.

4. Some Definitional Housekeeping.

5. Parameters of Word Order.

6. Drawing Trees in X-bar Notation.

Important Considerations in Tree Drawing.

A Sample Tree.

7. X-bar Theory: A Summary.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

7. Extending X-bar Theory to Functional Categories.

0. Introduction.

1. Determiner Phrases (DPs).

2. A Descriptive Tangent into Clause Types.

3. Complementizer Phrases (CPs).

4. Tense Phrases (TPs).

5. CP, TP, DP tree.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

8. Constraining X-bar Theory: The Lexicon.

0. Introduction.

1. Some Basic Terminology.

2. Thematic Relations and Theta Roles.

3. The Lexicon.

4. Expletives and the Extended Projection Principle.

5. Summary.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

Part 3: Movement:.

9. Head-to-Head Movement.

0. Introduction.

1. Verb Movement (V –> T).

French.

Irish.

2. T Movement (T –> C).

3. Do-support.

4. Multiple Auxiliaries and Affix-hopping in English.

Multiple Auxiliaries.

Affix-hopping.

5. Summary.

Appendix: Tests for Determining if a Language has V –> T or Affix Lowering.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

10. DP Movement.

0. Introduction.

1. A Puzzle for the Theory of Theta Roles.

2. Passives.

3. Case.

4. Raising: Reprise.

5. Passives: Reprise.

6. Closing Up a Loose End.

7. Conclusion.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

11. Wh-movement.

0. Introduction.

1. Movement in Wh-questions.

2. Islands.

3. The Minimal Link Condition.

Wh-islands and the Minimal Link Condition.

The MLC in DP Movement and Head Movement.

4. Echo Questions (Wh-in-situ) in English.

5. Conclusion.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

12. A Unified Theory of Movement.

0. Introduction.

1. Move.

2. Explaining Cross-linguistic Differences.

3. Scope, Covert Movement, and The MLC.

MLC Effects in Wh-in-situ Languages.

English Quantifiers and Scope.

4. Conclusion.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

Part 4: Advanced Topics:.

13. Expanded VPs.

0. Introduction.

1. The Problem of Ditransitive Verbs.

2. Light Verbs.

3. Object Shift.

4. Ditransitives: Reprise.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

14. Raising, Control, and Empty Categories.

0. Introduction.

1. Raising vs. Control.

Two Kinds of Theta Grids for Main Predicates.

Distinguishing Raising from Control.

What is PRO?.

2. Two Kinds of Raising, Two Kinds of Control.

Two Kinds of Raising.

Two Kinds of Control.

Summary of Predicate Types.

3. Control Theory.

4. Another Kind of Null Subject: “Little” pro.

5. Summary.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

15. Advanced Topics in Binding Theory.

0. A Quick Review of Chapter 5 Binding Theory.

1. Levels of Representation.

2. The Definition of Binding Domain.

A Miscellany of Domain Violations.

Anaphors.

Pronouns.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Sets.

Challenge Problem Sets.

Part 5: Alternatives:.

16. Lexical-Functional Grammar.

0. Alternative Theories.

1. C-structure.

2. Functions.

3. The Lexicon.

4. F-structure.

Why F-structures?.

5. Assorted Phenomena.

Head Mobility.

Passives.

Raising and Control.

Wh-movement: Long Distance Dependencies.

6. Conclusion.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Set.

Challenge Problem Sets.

17. Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.

0. Introduction.

1. Features.

2. The Lexicon.

3. Rules, Features, and Trees.

4. Binding.

5. Long Distance Dependencies.

Ideas Introduced in this Chapter.

Further Reading.

General Problem Set.

Challenge Problem Sets.

Conclusions and Directions for Further Study.

References.

Index.

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Author Information

Andrew Carnie is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Arizona. He is the editor of several books including Verb First (2005), Formal Approaches to Function (2003), and The Syntax of Verb Initial Languages (2000).
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The Wiley Advantage

  • A fully revised second edition of the popular syntax textbook, providing a comprehensive introduction to the major issues in syntactic theory, including phrase structure, the lexicon, case theory, movement, and locality condition
  • Includes new and extended problem sets in every chapter, all of which have been annotated for level and skill type
  • Features three new chapters on advanced topics including vP shells, object shells, control, gapping and ellipsis and an additional chapter on advanced topics in binding
  • Offers a brief survey of both Lexical-Functional Grammar and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar
  • Succeeds in strengthening the reader's foundational knowledge, and prepares them for more advanced study
  • Supported by an instructor's manual and online resources for students and instructors, available at www.blackwellpublishing.com/carnie.
See More

Reviews

"Andrew Carnie's Syntax quickly became the standard textbook in generative syntax because it was neither overly technical nor artificially simple. The second edition is substantially better and more complete. The original discussion is expanded and there are a number of new chapters on advanced topics like raising and control, and the book continues to include chapters that introduce alternative theories like LFG and HPSG. To my mind, this is by far the best choice on the market today." Peter Cole, University of Delaware

Praise for the first edition...

"From first-hand experience, Carnie's book provides a highly readable and engaging initiation into the mindset and preoccupations of current syntactic theory. It is useful in tying the cognitive implications and background of current Chomskyan work together with the increasing cross-linguistic emphasis in syntax. The problem sets alone were extremely appreciated by my undergraduates." Mark Baltin, New York University

"This book is a perfect example of how sophisticated syntactic concepts can be presented in a genuinely reader-friendly way. The syntax student is led carefully through argumentation to current syntactic theory and at the end has a clear understanding not only of the whats of syntax but also the whys." Lisa deMena Travis, McGill University

"The book is written in a reader-friendly way, and guides students to grasp complicated syntactic concepts and analyses." The Linguist List

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