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Handbook of Food Safety Engineering

Da-Wen Sun (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4443-3334-3
864 pages
November 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Handbook of Food Safety Engineering (1444333348) cover image
This book presents a comprehensive and substantial overview of the emerging field of food safety engineering, bringing together in one volume the four essential components of food safety:
  • the fundamentals of microbial growth
  • food safety detection techniques
  • microbial inactivation techniques
  • food safety management systems

Written by a team of highly active international experts with both academic and professional credentials, the book is divided into five parts. Part I details the principles of food safety including microbial growth and modelling. Part II addresses novel and rapid food safety detection methods. Parts III and IV look at various traditional and novel thermal and non-thermal processing techniques for microbial inactivation. Part V concludes the book with an overview of the major international food safety management systems such as GMP, SSOP, HACCP and ISO22000.

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List of Contributors xvii

About the Editor xxii

Preface xxiv

PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS 1

1 Introduction to Food Microbiology 3
Martin Adams

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Microorganisms and foods 4

1.3 Foodborne illness 5

1.4 Food spoilage 8

1.5 Food fermentation 9

1.6 Microbial physiology and food preservation 10

1.7 Microbiological analysis 12

1.8 Food safety management systems 14

1.9 Conclusions 16

2 Overview of Foodborne Pathogens 18

Amalia G.M. Scannell

2.1 Introduction 18

2.2 Bacterial pathogens 20

2.3 Foodborne viruses 37

2.4 Foodborne parasites 39

2.5 Conclusions 42

3 Chemical Safety of Foods 57
Steve L. Taylor and Joseph L. Baumert

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Nature of chemical hazards in foods 57

3.3 Food safety engineering and control of chemical hazards 71

3.4 Food allergen control 72

3.5 Conclusions 76

4 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters for Microbial Growth and Heat Inactivation 79
Vijay K. Juneja, Lihan Huang and Xianghe Yan

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Factors affecting microbial growth 80

4.3 Factors affecting heat resistance 88

4.4 Combining traditional preservation techniques 89

4.5 Conclusions 90

5 Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation 92
Osman Erkmen and Aykut Ö. Barazi

5.1 Introduction 92

5.2 Microbial inactivation kinetics based on food processing methods 92

5.3 Kinetic parameters for the inactivation of pathogens 102

5.4 Conclusions 105

6 Predictive Microbial Modelling 108
Ursula Andrea Gonzales-Barron

6.1 Introduction 108

6.2 Classification of models 108

6.3 Description of main models 117

6.4 Applications of predictive microbial modelling 136

6.5 Predictive microbial modelling and quantitative risk assessment 138

6.6 Conclusions 140

7 Integration of Food Process Engineering and Food Microbial Growth 153
Lijun Wang

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Inactivation of microbial growth 154

7.3 Process-dependent microbial modeling 160

7.4 Process modeling 165

7.5 Integration of process and microbial growth kinetic models 169

7.6 Conclusions 170

PART TWO: ADVANCED FOOD SAFETY DETECTION METHODS 177

8 Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology: 30 Years of Trends and Predictions 179
Daniel Y.C. Fung

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 Sample preparation 179

8.3 Microorganism detection 180

8.4 Future developments 185

8.5 Conclusions 185

9 Phage-based Detection of Foodborne Pathogens 190
Udit Minocha, Mindy Shroyer, Patricia Romero and Bruce M. Applegate

9.1 Introduction 190

9.2 Fundamentals of bacteriophage 192

9.3 Phage-based detection of pathogens 197

9.4 Bacteriophage-mediated biocontrol 205

9.5 Conclusions 210

10 Real-time PCR 217
Alan G. Mathew

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Real-time PCR theory and technologies 218

10.3 Real-time PCR systems 231

10.4 Real-time PCR applications for food safety 232

10.5 Conclusions 252

11 DNA Array 258
Magdalena Gabig-Cimin´ska, Joanna Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka and Grzegorz Wegrzyn

11.1 Introduction 258

11.2 History – from double helix via blot to DNA array 259

11.3 Principle 260

11.4 DNA array structure and operating rules 261

11.5 Applications and potential use of the DNA arrays 273

11.6 Conclusions 274

12 Immunoassay 279
David L. Brandon and J. Mark Carter

12.1 Introduction 279

12.2 Strategic considerations 281

12.3 Immunoassay formats 288

12.4 Combined methodologies 297

12.5 Selected examples of immunoassay applied to food safety 299

12.6 Troubleshooting and validation 304

12.7 Future developments 305

12.8 Conclusions 306

13 Biosensors 313
Francis J. Mulaa and Petra M. Krämer

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Biosensors for food control and safety 314

13.3 Conclusions 342

PART THREE: CONVENTIONAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS OF PRODUCING SAFE FOODS 353

14 Pasteurization and Sterilization 355
Tatiana Koutchma

14.1 Introduction 355

14.2 Sterilization 356

14.3 Pasteurization 356

14.4 Conclusions 369

15 Microwave Processing 371
Shaojin Wang

15.1 Introduction 371

15.2 Mechanism of microwave heating 372

15.3 Microwave related dielectric properties 373

15.4 Computer simulations to improve microwave heating uniformity 380

15.5 Practical and commercial microwave processing 382

15.6 Conclusions 387

16 Drying of Foods 394
Naphaporn Chiewchan, Sakamon Devahastin and Arun S. Mujumdar

16.1 Introduction 394

16.2 Occurrence of mycotoxins and pathogenic bacteria in dried food products 395

16.3 Control of mycotoxins and pathogenic bacteria in dried food products 400

16.4 Conclusions 405

17 Frying of Foods 412
Serpil Sahin and Isil Barutcu

17.1 Introduction 412

17.2 Oil absorption 413

17.3 Changes in oil during frying 418

17.4 Formation of toxic substances in fried food during frying 427

17.5 Conclusions 432

18 Food Refrigeration 444
Adriana E. Delgado and Da-Wen Sun

18.1 Introduction 444

18.2 Food microbiology and refrigeration 445

18.3 Refrigerated prepared meals 455

18.4 Refrigerated storage and safety 457

18.5 Active and intelligent packaging 461

18.6 Conclusions 463

19 Sous Vide and Cook-chill Processing 468
Ronan Gormley and Fergal Tansey

19.1 Introduction 468

19.2 Sous vide processing 469

19.3 Cook-chill processing (non-sous vide) 482

19.4 High-quality shelf-life, distribution and retailing 488

19.5 Conclusions 491

20 Irradiation 497
Monique Lacroix

20.1 Introduction 497

20.2 Definition of irradiation 498

20.3 Gamma irradiation 499

20.4 UV-C irradiation 502

20.5 Combined treatments 504

20.6 Conclusions 515

21 Aseptic Processing and Packaging 524
Julius Ashirifie-Gogofio and John D. Floros

21.1 Introduction 524

21.2 A brief history of aseptic processing in the food industry 525

21.3 Basic principles and applications 525

21.4 Aseptic packaging applications 527

21.5 Aseptic packaging systems 531

21.6 Aseptic bulk storage 532

21.7 Selection of an aseptic packaging system 533

21.8 Aseptic processing operation: establishment, validation and regulations 534

21.9 Safety of aseptically processed foods 535

21.10 Advantages of aseptically processed foods 536

21.11 Future trends for aseptic processing and packaging 538

21.12 Conclusions 539

22 Modified Atmosphere Packaging 543
Francisco Artés, Perla A. Gómez, Encarna Aguayo and Francisco Artés-Hernández

22.1 Introduction 543

22.2 Atmosphere modification 544

22.3 Effects of the atmosphere modification 547

22.4 Potential benefits 547

22.5 Potential disadvantages 550

22.6 Tolerance to O2 and CO2 551

22.7 Nonconventional atmospheres 552

22.8 Map recommendations 553

22.9 Package design 556

22.10 Modelling 557

22.11 Types of films 559

22.12 Active and intelligent packaging 560

22.13 Conclusions 564

PART FOUR: NOVEL PROCESSING METHODS FOR FOOD MICROBIAL INACTIVATION 575

23 High Pressure Processing 577
Montserrat Mor-Mur and Jordi Saldo

23.1 Introduction 577

23.2 Basics on HPP equipment design 578

23.3 Modeling of the effect of high pressure treatments 580

23.4 Mode of action of high pressure on spoiling and pathogenic agents 585

23.5 Pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) 592

23.6 Packaging materials 594

23.7 Commercial and economical aspects 595

23.8 Future perspectives and promising applications 596

23.9 Conclusions 597

24 Pulsed Electric Field Processing 603
Olga Martín-Belloso, Angel Sobrino-López and Pedro Elez-Martínez

24.1 Introduction 603

24.2 Microbial inactivation 603

24.3 Quality and shelf-life of PEF-treated foods 616

24.4 Management of PEF processing 618

24.5 Conclusions 620

25 Radio Frequency Technology 627
Valérie Orsat and Ramesh Murugesan

25.1 Introduction 627

25.2 Radio frequency heating technology 628

25.3 RF treatments 631

25.4 Role of RFID in food product traceability 636

25.5 Conclusions 638

26 Pulsed Light Technology 643
Vicente M. Gómez-López

26.1 Introduction 643

26.2 Types of UV lamps 644

26.3 Characterizing pulsed light treatments 644

26.4 Pulsed light systems 646

26.5 Microbial inactivation mechanisms and related topics 650

26.6 Inactivation kinetics 655

26.7 Technological challenges to deliver appropriate illumination 657

26.8 Microbial-related factors affecting PL efficacy 659

26.9 Inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms and toxins 660

26.10 Pulsed light photosensitization 665

26.11 Conclusions 665

27 Ohmic Heating Treatment 669
António A. Vicente, Inês de Castro, José A. Teixeira and Luís F. Machado

27.1 Introduction 669

27.2 Ohmic heating theory 671

27.3 Ohmic heating effects 673

27.4 Commercial applications 676

27.5 Conclusions 677

28 Ozone Processing 681
Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

28.1 Introduction 681

28.2 Ozone and its production 682

28.3 Microbial inactivation of food materials 684

28.4 Safety requirements 689

28.5 Conclusions 689

29 Intelligent Packaging 693
Ibrahim Sani Özdemir

29.1 Introduction 693

29.2 Intelligent packaging systems 694

29.3 Anti-counterfeiting applications 701

29.4 Legislation 702

29.5 Conclusions 702

PART FIVE: FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 707

30 Introduction to Food Safety Management 709
Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis and Maria Sakkomitrou

30.1 Introduction 709

30.2 GMP and GHP systems and their application in food safety 710

30.3 HACCP 713

30.4 BRC and IFS 723

30.5 ISO 22000:2005 726

30.6 Conclusions 730

31 Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) 733
Ólafur Sveinn Oddgeirsson

31.1 Introduction 733

31.2 Rights and responsibilities 734

31.3 GMP and prerequisite programmes 735

31.4 Production premises 745

31.5 Checks on finished products 759

31.6 Information on audits 759

31.7 Further information 761

31.8 Conclusions 762

32 Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures 763
Felix H. Barron, Angela Fraser and Kenneth Herring

32.1 Introduction 763

32.2 Principle of SSOPs 764

32.3 Application procedures of SSOPs 765

32.4 USA SSOPs regulations 766

32.5 Conclusions 770

33 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System 772
Kerri B. Harris

33.1 Introduction 772

33.2 History of HACCP and its principles 772

33.3 Implementing HACCP 782

33.4 Training 782

33.5 Conclusions 784

34 ISO 22000 Food Safety 786
Peter Raspor and Mateja Ambro ič

34.1 Introduction 786

34.2 History of food standards 787

34.3 Review of existing standards related to food 788

34.4 Conceptual principles for standard development 790

34.5 ISO 22000 792

34.6 Application of ISO 22000 in practice 798

34.7 Advantages and disadvantages of standardization 811

34.8 Future needs 812

34.9 Conclusions 813

Index 817

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Da-Wen Sun is a Member of Royal Irish Academy, and Professor of Food and Biosystems Engineering and Director of the Food Refrigeration and Computerised Food Technology Research Group at University College Dublin.
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“This book presents a comprehensive overview of the emerging field of food safety engineering, bringing together the 4 essential components of food safety : fundamentals of microbial growth; food safety analytical techniques; microbial inactivation techniques; and food safety managements systems.”  (Food Science & Technology Abstracts, 2012)

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