Thank you for visiting us. We are currently updating our shopping cart and regret to advise that it will be unavailable until September 1, 2014. We apologise for any inconvenience and look forward to serving you again.

Wiley
Wiley.com
Print this page Share

Membrane Processing: Dairy and Beverage Applications

A. Y. Tamime (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4443-3337-4
370 pages
February 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Membrane Processing: Dairy and Beverage Applications (1444333372) cover image

In the last two decades, there have been significant developments in membrane filtration processes for the dairy and beverage industries. The filtration systems can be classified into four main groups: reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration. The primary objective of this book is to assess critically the pool of scientific knowledge available to the dairy and beverages industry, as a tool for process and product innovation, quality improvement and safety.

The book is divided into three main parts. Part I reviews the principals, developments and designs of membrane processes that are mainly used in commercial dairy and beverage applications. Part II provides information on the applications of membrane processes in the manufacture of dairy products, from on-farm concentration of milk as a pre-treatment for cheesemaking to fractionation of milk and whey to provide ingredients for food and other applications. Part III considers membrane applications during the manufacture of fruit juices, beer and cider, wine and vinegar. These include concentration, deacidification and dealcoholisation processes.

Membrane Processing: Dairy and Beverages Applications is an ideal new reference for dairy and beverage processors involved in the application of membranes, both to aid the creation of novel products, and to improve their process economics. Students and lecturers of food and dairy science and technology will value its in-depth discussion of membrane processes, whilst readers based in the dairy industry will prize it as the most up-to-date and advanced volume yet published on this crucially important topic.

See More
Preface to the Technical Series xiii

Preface xv

Contributors xvii

1 Development of Membrane Processes 1
K. Smith

1.1 Historical background 1

1.2 Basic principles of membrane separations 3

1.2.1 Depth versus screen filters 3

1.2.2 Isotropic versus anisotropic membranes 4

1.2.3 Cross-flow filtration 5

1.2.4 Requirements of membrane processes 7

1.3 Types of membrane separations 8

1.3.1 Reverse osmosis 8

1.3.2 Nanofiltration 8

1.3.3 Ultrafiltration 9

1.3.4 Microfiltration 9

1.4 Theory of membrane transport 9

1.4.1 Transport models 9

1.4.2 Reverse osmosis/nanofiltration membranes 10

1.4.3 Ultrafiltration/microfiltration membranes 11

1.5 Factors affecting membrane separations 11

1.5.1 Factors affecting reverse osmosis/nanofiltration separations 11

1.5.2 Factors affecting ultrafiltration/microfiltration separations 12

1.5.3 System parameters 13

1.6 General characteristics of membrane processes 13

1.6.1 Retention and rejection 13

1.6.2 Pore size 14

1.6.3 Molecular weight cut-off 14

1.6.4 Flux 14

1.6.5 Concentration factor 15

1.6.6 Membrane life 15

1.7 Conclusion and future development 15

Suggested literature 15

2 Principles of Membrane Filtration 17
A. Hausmann, M.C. Duke and T. Demmer

2.1 Introduction and definitions 17

2.1.1 Membrane processes 17

2.1.2 Definitions of membrane processes 18

2.2 Membrane properties based on materials 24

2.2.1 Membrane structure 24

2.2.2 Material properties 26

2.3 Flux behaviour in pressure-driven membrane operations 29

2.3.1 Modelling flux behaviour 30

2.3.2 Influence of chemical potential on the reverse osmosis process 35

2.4 Effects of feed characteristics and operating parameter on separation efficiency 37

2.4.1 Effects of feed components 37

2.4.2 Effects of operating parameters 40

2.5 Cross-flow systems 43

2.5.1 Background 43

2.5.2 Single-pass versus feed-and-bleed operation 43

2.6 Recent membrane processes following different operating principles 44

2.6.1 Forward osmosis 44

2.6.2 Osmotic distillation 45

2.6.3 Membrane distillation 46

2.7 Conclusions 47

References 47

3 Commercial Membrane Technology 52
K. Smith

3.1 Introduction: polymers used in membrane manufacture 52

3.1.1 Cellulose acetate 52

3.1.2 Polysulphone/polyethersulphone 53

3.1.3 Polyamide 54

3.1.4 Polyvinylidene fluoride 55

3.1.5 Thin-film composites 55

3.2 Other materials used for membranes 56

3.2.1 Ceramic membranes 56

3.2.2 Metallic membranes 57

3.3 Membrane configuration 58

3.3.1 Spiral-wound 59

3.3.2 Tubular 61

3.3.3 Hollow fibre 63

3.3.4 Plate and frame 64

3.4 Modes of operation 65

3.4.1 Diafiltration 66

3.4.2 Batch design 67

3.4.3 Continuous design 69

3.5 Conclusion and future developments 71

Suggested literature 71

4 Membrane Fouling, Cleaning and Disinfection 73
L.L.A. Koh, M. Ashokkumar and S.E. Kentish

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Flux reduction 73

4.2.1 Membrane resistance 74

4.2.2 Concentration polarisation 74

4.2.3 Fouling 80

4.2.4 Fouling in the beverage industry 83

4.2.5 Fouling in the dairy industry 83

4.3 Membrane cleaning and disinfection 84

4.3.1 Cleaning methods 84

4.3.2 Chemical cleaning factors 87

4.3.3 Disinfection 95

4.3.4 Cleaning procedures 95

4.3.5 Chemical cleaning agents recovery and reuse 97

4.4 Recent developments 98

4.5 Conclusions 99

4.6 Nomenclature 100

References 102

5 General Application for the Treatment of Effluent and Reuse of Wastewater 107
N.A. Milne and S.R. Gray

5.1 General wastewater quality issues 107

5.2 General wastewater treatment 108

5.2.1 Primary treatment: solids, fats, oils and grease removal 110

5.2.2 Secondary treatment: biological treatment and the membrane bioreactor 110

5.2.3 Tertiary treatment: disinfection 115

5.2.4 Desalination: nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 116

5.3 Water reuse 117

5.4 Conclusions and future applications 123

References 124

6 Liquid Milk Processing 128
G. Gesan-Guiziou

6.1 Introduction 128

6.2 On-farm concentration of milk 128

6.3 Protein standardisation by ultrafiltration 130

6.3.1 Advantages of protein standardisation 131

6.3.2 Regulatory aspects 132

6.3.3 Process involved 133

6.4 Removal of bacteria by microfiltration 134

6.4.1 Microfiltration process: operating conditions and performances 134

6.4.2 Industrial applications 137

6.5 Fractionation of fat 138

6.6 Removal of somatic cells by microfiltration 139

6.7 Conclusions and future trends 140

References 140

7 Membrane Processing of Fermented Milks 143
B. Ozer and A.Y. Tamime

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Microflora of the starter cultures 144

7.3 Patterns of production and consumption 145

7.4 Manufacturing practice of gel-type (set and stirred) products 145

7.4.1 Mesophilic–lactic fermentations 145

7.4.2 Thermophilic–lactic fermentations 148

7.4.3 Yeast–lactic fermentations 151

7.4.4 Mould–lactic fermentations 152

7.5 Manufacturing practice of concentrated products 152

7.5.1 Background 152

7.5.2 Concentrated yoghurt 153

7.5.3 Shrikhand and chakka 156

7.5.4 Ymer 156

7.5.5 Skyr 158

7.6 Quality control 158

7.6.1 Compositional quality 158

7.6.2 Microbiological quality 167

7.6.3 Organoleptic properties 168

7.7 Conclusion 169

References 170

8 Cheese 176
V.V. Mistry

8.1 Background 176

8.2 Properties of membrane processed concentrates 177

8.2.1 Buffering capacity 177

8.2.2 Rheology of concentrated milks 178

8.2.3 Rennet coagulation 178

8.3 Applications of ultrafiltration in cheesemaking 178

8.3.1 Protein standardisation 178

8.3.2 Medium or intermediate concentrated retentates 179

8.3.3 Liquid pre-cheeses concept 180

8.3.4 Application of ultrafiltration for fresh and soft cheeses 184

8.4 Cheese quality 185

8.5 Applications of microfiltration in cheesemaking 186

8.5.1 Removal of bacteria 186

8.5.2 Casein standardisation 187

8.5.3 αs-/β-casein ratio adjustment by microfiltration 187

8.5.4 Recovery of fat and brine 188

8.6 Nanofiltration 188

8.7 Milk protein concentrates 189

8.8 Future potential 189

References 190

9 Whey Processing 193
L. Ramchandran and T. Vasiljevic

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Whey: components, their functionality and uses 193

9.3 Problems of traditional whey processing 195

9.4 Membranes in whey processing 196

9.4.1 Microfiltration 197

9.4.2 Ultrafiltration 198

9.4.3 Diafiltration 199

9.4.4 Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 200

9.4.5 Electrodialysis and other related processes 200

9.4.6 Integrated processes 204

9.5 Conclusions 204

References 205

10 Concentrated Milk and Powders 208
G. Gesan-Guiziou

10.1 Introduction 208

10.2 Concentrated milks and powders 208

10.2.1 Background 208

10.2.2 Production of concentrated whole milk and powder 209

10.2.3 Production of concentrated skimmed milk and powder 211

10.2.4 Applications of reverse osmosis concentrated milks 215

10.2.5 Dulce de Leche 217

10.3 Milk protein concentrates 218

10.3.1 Manufacture of milk protein concentrates 218

10.3.2 Applications of milk protein concentrates 219

10.4 Conclusion and future trends 222

References 222

11 Further Applications of Membrane Filtration in Dairy Processing 225
J.A. O’Mahony and J.J. Tuohy

11.1 Introduction 225

11.2 Fractionation of milk proteins using membranes 226

11.2.1 Separation of casein and whey proteins in milk 226

11.2.2 Fractionation of individual casein proteins 229

11.2.3 Fractionation of individual whey proteins 232

11.2.4 Fractionation of milk protein hydrolysates 233

11.2.5 Enrichment of osteopontin from milk/whey 238

11.2.6 Production of microparticulated whey protein 239

11.2.7 Isolation and enrichment of growth factors from milk/whey 240

11.3 Fractionation of milk fat using membranes 240

11.3.1 Isolation and enrichment of native milk fat globules 240

11.3.2 Isolation and enrichment of milk fat globule membrane 242

11.3.3 Removal of phospholipids from liquid whey 243

11.3.4 Filter sterilisation of polyunsaturated fatty acids 244

11.4 Fractionation of milk carbohydrates using membranes 245

11.4.1 Isolation and purification of bovine milk oligosaccharides 245

11.4.2 Filter sterilisation of lactase 247

11.4.3 Lactic acid removal and purification 247

11.5 Fractionation of milk salts using membranes 248

11.5.1 Demineralisation using membranes 248

11.5.2 Demineralisation using electrodialysis 249

11.6 Conclusions and future trends 251

References 253

12 Fruit Juices 262
A. Cassano

12.1 Introduction 262

12.1.1 General Background 262

12.1.2 Background to manufacturing practice 262

12.2 Fruit juice clarification by microfiltration and ultrafiltration 265

12.2.1 Microfiltration 265

12.2.2 Ultrafiltration 265

12.2.3 Selection of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes 266

12.3 Membrane fouling and membrane cleaning 266

12.3.1 Membrane fouling 266

12.3.2 Methods of reducing membrane fouling 267

12.3.3 Methods of fouling treatment 268

12.4 Performance of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes 269

12.5 Process configurations 273

12.6 Quality of the clarified juices 274

12.7 Integrated processes 276

12.8 Conclusions and future development 277

References 277

13 Beer and Cider 281
J. Bergin and J.J. Tuohy

13.1 Introduction 281

13.2 Beer brewing process 282

13.2.1 Milling 283

13.2.2 Mashing 284

13.2.3 Wort separation 284

13.2.4 Boiling 287

13.2.5 Trub separation 287

13.2.6 Fermentation 288

13.2.7 Clarification 289

13.2.8 Beer make-up 290

13.2.9 Packaging and microbiological stabilisation 291

13.3 Cidermaking process 292

13.3.1 Juice extraction and formulation 292

13.3.2 Fermentation 293

13.3.3 Racking and maturation 293

13.3.4 Blending, filtration and packaging 293

13.4 Membrane applications in the brewing process 294

13.4.1 Wort separation 295

13.4.2 Beer filtration and stabilisation 298

13.5 Membrane applications in cidermaking 300

13.5.1 Background 300

13.5.2 Cider clarification 301

13.6 Membrane applications common to brewing and cidermaking 302

13.6.1 Yeast separation and product recovery 302

13.6.2 Microbiological stabilisation 304

13.6.3 Gas standardisation using membranes 305

13.6.4 Water recovery/cleaning-in-place systems 308

13.6.5 Alcohol removal for non- or low-alcohol products and malt beverage production 309

13.7 Future opportunities 311

References 313

14 Wine 316
K. Grainger

14.1 Background 316

14.2 Clarification and filtration methods 318

14.2.1 Traditional methods in common use 318

14.2.2 Membrane filtration 319

14.2.3 Cross-flow microfiltration 320

14.3 Membrane fouling 322

14.4 Must correction, wine correction and alcohol reduction using membrane technologies 322

14.4.1 Reverse osmosis 322

14.4.2 Ultrafiltration 324

14.4.3 Wine correction: reducing alcohol content 324

14.4.4 Wine correction: removing acetic acid 325

14.4.5 Wine correction: removal of taints 326

14.5 Wine stabilisation and pH adjustment 327

14.5.1 Tartrate stabilisation 327

14.5.2 pH adjustment 328

14.6 Conclusions and future developments 328

References 330

15 Application of Membrane Technology in Vinegar 334
F. Lopez

15.1 Introduction 334

15.2 Process of vinegar making 335

15.3 Membrane technology in the production of vinegar 336

15.4 Conclusions 338

References 338

Index 339
See More

A.Y. Tamime is a Consultant in Dairy Science and Technology, Ayr, UK. He is the Series Editor of the SDT’s Technical Book Series.

See More

“In summary, a very worthwhile addition to the series that provides an excellent source for those working with this technology.” (International Journal of Dairy Technology, 3 August 2013)

 

See More

Related Titles

Back to Top