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Handbook of Plant Food Phytochemicals: Sources, Stability and Extraction

Brijesh K. Tiwari (Editor), Nigel P. Brunton (Editor), Charles Brennan (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-4443-3810-2
526 pages
April 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Handbook of Plant Food Phytochemicals: Sources, Stability and Extraction (1444338102) cover image

Phytochemicals are plant derived chemicals which may bestow health benefits when consumed, whether medicinally or as part of a balanced diet. Given that plant foods are a major component of most diets worldwide, it is unsurprising that these foods represent the greatest source of phytochemicals for most people. Yet it is only relatively recently that due recognition has been given to the importance of phytochemicals in maintaining our health. New evidence for the role of specific plant food phytochemicals in protecting against the onset of diseases such as cancers and heart disease is continually being put forward. The increasing awareness of consumers of the link between diet and health has exponentially increased the number of scientific studies into the biological effects of these substances.

The Handbook of Plant Food Phytochemicals provides a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, significance and factors effecting phytochemicals in plant foods. A key of objective of the book is to critically evaluate these aspects.  Evaluation of the evidence for and against the quantifiable health benefits being imparted as expressed in terms of the reduction in the risk of disease conferred through the consumption of foods that are rich in phytochemicals.

With world-leading editors and contributors, the Handbook of Plant Food Phytochemicals is an invaluable, cutting-edge resource for food scientists, nutritionists and plant biochemists. It covers the processing techniques aimed at the production of phytochemical-rich foods which can have a role in disease-prevention, making it ideal for both the food industry and those who are researching the health benefits of particular foods. Lecturers and advanced students will find it a helpful and readable guide to a constantly expanding subject area.

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Contributor list xiii

1 Plant food phytochemicals 1
B.K. Tiwari, Nigel P. Brunton and Charles S. Brennan

1.1 Importance of phytochemicals 1

1.2 Book objective 2

1.3 Book structure 2

Part I CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH 5

2 Chemistry and classification of phytochemicals 7
Rocio Campos-Vega and B. Dave Oomah

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Classification of phytochemicals 8

2.3 Chemical properties of phytochemicals 21

2.4 Biochemical pathways of important phytochemicals 34

3 Phytochemicals and health 49
Ian T. Johnson

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Bioavailability of phytochemicals 50

3.3 Phytochemicals and their health-promoting effects 55

3.4 General conclusions 63

4 Pharmacology of phytochemicals 68
José M. Matés

4.1 Introduction 68

4.2 Medicinal properties of phytochemicals 69

4.3 Phytochemicals and disease prevention 78

4.4 Phytochemicals and cardiovascular disease 82

4.5 Phytochemicals and cancer 88

4.6 Summary and conclusions 95

Part II SOURCES OF PHYTOCHEMICALS 105

5 Fruit and vegetables 107
Uma Tiwari and Enda Cummins

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Polyphenols 107

5.3 Carotenoids 113

5.4 Glucosinolates 117

5.5 Glycoalkaloids 120

5.6 Polyacetylenes 121

5.7 Sesquiterpene lactones 123

5.8 Coumarins 124

5.9 Terpenoids 125

5.10 Betalains 125

5.11 Vitamin E or tocols content in fruit and vegetables 126

5.12 Conclusions 129

6 Food grains 138
Sanaa Ragaee, Tamer Gamel, Koushik Seethraman, and El-Sayed M. Abdel-Aal

6.1 Introduction 138

6.2 Phytochemicals in cereal grains 139

6.3 Phytochemicals in legume grains 144

6.4 Stability of phytochemicals during processing 149

6.5 Food applications and impact on health 152

6.6 Cereal-based functional foods 152

6.7 Legume-based functional foods 153

7 Plantation crops and tree nuts: composition, phytochemicals and health benefits 163
Narpinder Singh and Amritpal Kaur

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Composition 165

7.3 Phytochemicals content 167

7.4 Health benefits 174

8 Food processing by-products 180
Anil Kumar Anal

8.1 Introduction 180

8.2 Phytochemicals from food by-products 181

8.3 By-products from fruit and vegetables 187

8.4 Tuber crops and cereals 189

8.5 Extraction of bioactive compounds from plant food by-products 190

8.6 Future trends 190

Part III Impact of procesing on phytochemicals 199

9 On farm and fresh produce management 201
Kim Reilly

9.1 Introduction 201

9.2 Pre-harvest factors affecting phytochemical content 202

9.3 Harvest and post-harvest management practices 218

9.4 Future prospects 222

10 Minimal processing of leafy vegetables 235
Rod Jones and Bruce Tomkins

10.1 Introduction 235

10.2 Minimally processed products 236

10.3 Cutting and shredding 237

10.4 Wounding physiology 238

10.5 Browning in lettuce leaves 240

10.6 Refrigerated storage 241

10.7 Modified atmosphere storage 242

10.8 Conclusions 243

11 Thermal processing 247
Nigel P. Brunton

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Blanching 248

11.3 Sous vide processing 250

11.4 Pasteurisation 251

11.5 Sterilisation 254

11.6 Frying 255

11.7 Conclusion 257

References 257

12 Effect of novel thermal processing on phytochemicals 260
Bhupinder Kaur, Fazilah Ariffin, Rajeev Bhat, and Alias A. Karim

12.1 Introduction 260

12.2 An overview of different processing methods for fruits and vegetables 261

12.3 Novel thermal processing methods 261

12.4 Effect of novel processing methods on phytochemicals 264

12.5 Challenges and prospects/future outlook 268

12.6 Conclusion 269

13 Non thermal processing 273
B.K. Tiwari, PJ Cullen, Charles S. Brennan and Colm P. O'Donnell

13.1 Introduction 273

13.2 Irradiation 273

13.3 High pressure processing 281

13.4 Pulsed electric field 284

13.5 Ozone processing 286

13.6 Ultrasound processing 289

13.7 Supercritical carbon dioxide 291

13.8 Conclusions 292

Part IV STA BILITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS 301

14 Stability of phytochemicals during grain processing 303
Laura Alvarez-Jubete and Uma Tiwari

14.1 Introduction 303

14.2 Germination 304

14.3 Milling 307

14.4 Fermentation 312

14.5 Baking 315

14.6 Roasting 323

14.7 Extrusion cooking 324

14.8 Parboiling 327

14.9 Conclusions 327

References 327

15 Factors affecting phytochemical stability 332
Jun Yang, Xiangjiu He, and Dongjun Zhao

15.1 Introduction 332

15.2 Effect of pH 335

15.3 Concentration 337

15.4 Processing 338

15.5 Enzymes 346

15.6 Structure 349

15.7 Copigments 350

15.8 Matrix 353

15.9 Storage conditions 357

15.10 Conclusion 363

16 Stability of phytochemicals at the point of sale 375
Pradeep Singh Negi

16.1 Introduction 375

16.2 Stability of phytochemicals during storage 375

16.3 Food application and stability of phytochemicals 381

16.4 Edible coatings for enhancement of phytochemical stability 382

16.5 Modified atmosphere storage for enhanced phytochemical stability 383

16.6 Bioactive packaging and micro encapsulation for enhanced phytochemical stability 384

16.7 Conclusions 387

Part V ANALYSIS AND APPLICAT ION 397

17 Conventional extraction techniques for phytochemicals 399
Niamh Harbourne, Eunice Marete, Jean Christophe Jacquier and Dolores O'Riordan

17.1 Introduction 399

17.2 Theory and principles of extraction 399

17.3 Examples of conventional techniques 405

17.4 Conclusion 409

18 Novel extraction techniques for phytochemicals 412
Hilde H. Wijngaard, Olivera Trifunovic and Peter Bongers

18.1 Introduction 412

18.2 Pressurised solvents 413

18.3 Enzyme assisted extraction 421

18.4 Non-thermal processing assisted extraction 423

18.5 Challenges and future of novel extraction techniques 426

19 Analytical techniques for phytochemicals 434
Rong Tsao and Hongyan Li

19.1 Introduction 434

19.2 Sample preparation 436

19.3 Non-chromatographic spectrophotometric methods 439

19.4 Chromatographic methods 442

20 Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals 452
Ankit Patras, Yvonne V. Yuan, Helena Soares Costa and Ana Sanches-Silva

20.1 Introduction 452

20.2 Measurement of antioxidant activity 453

20.3 Concluding remarks 465

21 Industrial applications of phytochemicals 473
Juan Valverde

21.1 Introduction 473

21.2 Phytochemicals as food additives 474

21.3 Stabilisation of fats, frying oils and fried products 481

21.4 Stabilisation and development of other food products 488

21.5 Nutracetical applications 492

21.6 Miscellaneous industrial applications 494

References 495

Index 502

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Dr B.K. Tiwari, Food and Consumer Technology, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

Dr Nigel P. Brunton, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Professor Charles Brennan, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand

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“This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, significance and factors affecting phytochemicals in plant foods . . . With world-leading editors and contributors, this handbook is a cutting-edge resource for food scientists, nutritionists and plant biochemists.”  (South African Food Science and Technology, 1 August 2013)

 

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