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Deprivation-Specific Psychological Patterns: Effects of Institutional Deprivation

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The English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study constituted an invaluable “natural experiment” in which there was a rapid, easily-timed transition from a profoundly depriving environment in Romanian institutions to generally well-functioning adoptive families in England. Multimodal methods of assessment were used throughout the assessments at 4, 6, 11, and 15 years of age. Four key findings were particularly striking. First, institutional deprivation was associated with an apparently deprivation-specific pattern of combinations of quasiautism, disinhibited attachment, cognitive impairment, and inattention/overactivity. Second, longitudinal growth curves showed a relative deceleration of growth between 11 and 15 years (possibly due to early puberty). Third, institutional deprivation without subnutrition was associated with a major impairment in head growth. Fourth, the effects of institutional deprivation were as strong at 15 years as they had been earlier in childhood.

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1. INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF EARLY INSTITUTIONAL DEPRIVATION ON DEVELOPMENT: BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH STRATEGY OF THE ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN ADOPTEES (ERA) STUDY (Michael Rutter, Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke, and Jennifer Castle).

2. METHODS AND MEASURES USED FOR FOLLOW-UP AT 15 YEARS OF THE ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN ADOPTEE (ERA) STUDY (The English and Romanian Study Team).

3. DEPRIVATION-SPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS (Robert Kumsta, Jana Kreppner, Michael Rutter, Celia Beckett, Jennifer Castle, Suzanne Stevens, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).

4. DEVELOPMENTAL COURSE OF DEPRIVATION-SPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS: EARLY MANIFESTATIONS, PERSISTENCE TO AGE 15, AND CLINICAL FEATURES (Jana Kreppner, Robert Kumsta, Michael Rutter, Celia Beckett, Jennifer Castle, Suzanne Stevens, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).

5. DIFFERENTIATING DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES FOR CONDUCT, EMOTION, AND PEER PROBLEMS FOLLOWING EARLY DEPRIVATION
(Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke, Wolff Schlotz, and Jana Kreppner).

6. INSTITUTIONAL DEPRIVATION, SPECIFIC COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS, AND
SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT: ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN ADOPTEE (ERA) STUDY FINDINGS (Celia Beckett, Jennifer Castle, Michael Rutter, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).

7. PHYSICAL GROWTH AND MATURATION FOLLOWING EARLY SEVERE
INSTITUTIONAL DEPRIVATION: DO THEY MEDIATE SPECIFIC PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS? (Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke, Wolff Schlotz, and Michael Rutter).

8. POSTADOPTION ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES (Jennifer Castle, Celia Beckett, Michael Rutter, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).

9.  RISK, CAUSATION, MEDIATION, AND MODERATION (Robert Kumsta, Michael Rutter, Suzanne Stevens, and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).

10. CONCLUSIONS: OVERVIEW OF FINDINGS FROM THE ERA STUDY, INFERENCES, AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS (Michael Rutter and Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke).

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